Diethylnitrosamine, ethylnitrosourea, and dimethylbenz(a)anthracene DNA binding studies in the rainbow trout Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/1n79h794m

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  • Dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (EMBA), a carcinogen that requires metabolic activation to produce active metabolites capable of binding to DNA, has been studied in the trout and other fish. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are of importance as they are ubiquitous in the environment and their carcinogenic effects in fish from contaminated waters are an important indication of the pollution risks to man. Since such pollution risk assessment presents the involvement of multiple agents, the study of the modulation of PAH-DNA binding produced by other agents is important. In this study the effect, of dietary pretreatment at 500 ppm, 100 ppm and 2000 ppn, using BNF, Aroclor 1254, or indole-3-carbinol (I3C) respectively on DMBA-DNA binding was examined. To study the effect of age on sensitivity to DMBA-DNA binding, adult trout and fry were used in two separate studies. The fish were fed treatment diet for at least two weeks. Fry were then injected with [³H] DMBA, at 22.4 μCi/3.9 x 10⁻² μmole/fish and adult trout at 284 μCi/1.58 μmole/fish. Liver DNA was isolated, purified and binding of radioactivity to DNA was examined and computed as the covalent binding index (CBI). Mean CBI for control dietary group vising adult trout was 1000 fold lower than for fry. Statistical analysis of covalent binding index for the treatment groups revealed that a statistically significant (p < 0.05) inhibition in DNA-DMBA binding response in adult trout and fry was produced fcy the DNF dietary treatment only. Diethylnitrosamine (DENA), a potent hepatocarcinogen in several animal species belongs also to the class of compounds that require metabolic activation. Dietary treatment and continuous exposure of trout to the carcinogen in water, have produced hepatocellular carcinctnas. The water exposure also produced a dose related DNA ethylation of the O⁶ position of guanine, believed to be the promutagenic adduct produced after DENA exposure. This study examines two other routes of exposure to DENA, in vitro hepatocyte incubations and i.p. injection. Adult trout and fry were injected with [³H] DENA. Adult fish received 3.3, 16.5, and 33 mg/kg DENA, and fry received 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg. Hepatocyte incubation was performed with doses up to 220 μM [³H] DENA, or 1 mM unlabelled DENA. DNA from fish livers and from hepatocyte pellets was isolated, purified and examined for radioactive binding of the DENA metabolites or in the case of the unlabelled DENA, was analyzed for O⁶ and N7 adduct using an HPIC technique with fluorescence detection. O⁶-EtG adduct after DENA exposure, in DNA of hepatocytes obtained from trout pretreated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF, a known inducer of cytodhrcme P-450 dependent enzyme activities involved in the activation of xenobiotics) was below the limits of detection of the HPDC-fluorescenoe detection procedure used. To examine further if the lack of DNA binding and absence of the O⁶-EtG adduct was due to rapid repair, the persistence of O⁶-EtG after exposure to 40 nM ethylnitrosourea (ENU, a direct ethylating agent) was studied in hepatocytes at 2, 4, and 5 hours after treatment. The activity of the alkyltransferase protein involved in the repair of alkylguanines also was determined using liver extracts from adult rainbow trout. The studies did not reveal a significantly high rate of repair. It is concluded that i.p. injection and in vitro hepatocyte incubations are not a good method for studying the kinetics of activation and DNA binding of DENA in the rainbow trout. The i.p. route may lead to substantial loss of the dose of the carcinogen administered and hepatocyte incubations are limited by the toxic effects of increasing carcinogen concentration. The reasons mentioned above, coupled with low levels of metabolism of nitrosamines in trout results in the inability to detect and study the appearance, persistence and repair of the O⁶-EtG adduct.
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