Circadian rhythms in Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) and Nomia melanderi Cockerell Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/1r66j393c

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  • The purpose of the study was to determine an emergence rhythm, its period, and the developmental stages susceptible to emergence synchronization in the leafcutter bee Megachile rotundata (Fabricius). An attempt was made to determine if an oxygen consumption rhythm was present in the pupal and adult stages of the alkali bee Nomia melanderi Cockerell. A circadian emergence rhythm with a 22 to 24 hour cycle was determined in Megachile rotundata. Temperature was found to be an effective emergence synchronizer. A temperature shock of 11 C° for 12 hours was sufficient to synchronize the emergence of M. rotundata cultures for at least six days. A temperature perturbation as low as six hours synchronized emergence in a culture of M. rotundata but a perturbation of one hour did not saturate the culture and thus a distinct emergence rhythm failed to develop. Light intensity up to 14 ft-c. was found to have no effect on the rhythm of emergence. The phase of the emergence rhythm in M. rotundata is directly related to the time at which a culture is removed from the cold following a temperature shock rather than to the time it is placed in the cold. Cultures subjected to cold periods of 24, 12, and 6 hours displayed close phase relationship to each other when they were removed from the cold at the same time. M. rotundata appears to be susceptible to emergence synchronization by temperature in the black-thorax and black-abdomen stages of the pupa and in the adult. It is impossible to draw definite conclusions from this study as to which stage is susceptible to emergence synchronization because of the high mortality rate in the insects used. Various stages of pupal development were studied in an attempt to discover an oxygen consumption rhythm in the alkali bee, Nomia melanderi, but no rhythm was detected.
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