Lysine-arginine interrelationships and dried whey utilization in monogastric rations Public Deposited

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  • A series of eight trials was conducted to determine if supplementation with arginine improved growth of young rats, Japanese quail and swine fed low-lysine diets. In five rat trials, with a variety of basal diets, no evidence of a "sparing effect" of arginine on the lysine requirement was found. A significant (P < 0. 001) depression in growth was observed in one of the rat trials when the animals were fed added arginine. Two trials with Japanese quail and one with swine were conducted to examine this interrelationship. There was no response to added arginine in either of these species. Based on the results of these eight experiments it was concluded that arginine supplementation is of no value in reducing the adverse effects on growth of low lysine diets fed to these monogastric species. In the second part of this study eight trials were conducted with swine and rats to examine some implications of feeding dried whey to monogastrics. Since dried whey is high in lactose, some nutritional aspects of lactose utilization were also studied. Because lactose is digested by bacterial action in the large intestine of the post-weaning animal, it was postulated that through stimulation of bacterial growth, fiber digestion might be enhanced in monogastrics fed lactose-containing rations. Inclusion of 10% whey in a swine grower ration containing 20% alfalfa did not influence growth rate. In a digestibility study with rats, substitution of 25% lactose in the diet reduced fiber digestibility. In feeding trials with swine, levels of 2 to 10% added whey were found to increase average daily gains and feed efficiency. Starter rations containing dried whey were compared to the currently used Oregon State University starter ration containing dried buttermilk. Results of this trial indicate that dried whey can be used to replace the more expensive dried buttermilk. Reducing sugars such as lactose may form indigestible complexes with certain amino acids, particularly lysine, by what is referred to as the Maillard or Browning reaction. This reaction is stimulated by heat. Since the pelleting process involves considerable heat, it is conceivable that through the Maillard reaction some of the lysine in pelleted rations containing whey could be unavailable. Three rat experiments were conducted to examine some factors influencing the Mail lard reaction, The substitution of 5 or 10% lactose for starch resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) depression in growth, which was largely overcome by supplementation with 0.3% lysine. The effects of various carbohydrate sources were compared. It was found that the substitution of lactose, dried whey and molasses for starch at the 5 or 10% level all produced a significant decrease in gains. The addition of amino groups in the form of glutarnic acid or urea failed to overcome the depression in growth caused by 5% lactose, but (NH₄)₂SO₄ did increase gains, The effects of several feed additives and fat sources on the Maillard reaction were also studied. In a 10% lactose diet vegetable oil increased gains when substituted for lard and alfalfa meal decreased gains. Neither copper sulphate, zinc sulphate nor calcium carbonate had any affect on the growth depression caused by 10% lactose. It was concluded that dried whey should be utilized in a supplementary capacity in swine feeds, but further work should be conducted on such factors as the effects of feed processing and interrelationships with other ration ingredients.
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