Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

The preparation and human taste detection of low degree of polymerization glucose oligomers Public Deposited

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  • There is growing evidence that humans and other animals can taste certain starch hydrolysis products, namely, maltooligosaccharides (MOS), and that their detection is independent of the known sweet receptor, T1R2 T1R3. The overall goal of this study was to further investigate the taste perception of low degree-of-polymerization (DP) MOS in humans. However, research in this area is limited, presumably due to a lack of MOS with specific, narrow DP profiles that are safe for human testing. In order to achieve the overall goal, a method was first developed to prepare specific groups of food-grade MOS (DP 3, 3-4, 5-6, and 6-7) by fractionating commercial mixtures of glucose oligomers and polymers. Psychophysical testing using the four prepared MOS stimuli in addition to glucose (DP 1) and maltose (DP 2) at the same concentration showed that all six stimuli were detected with similar discriminability in normal tasting conditions. In order to assess the potential role of T1R2 T1R3 in MOS taste detection, the stimuli were additionally prepared with lactisole, a sweet inhibitor. All stimuli in both lactisole treatments were prepared with acarbose to prevent oral digestion of glucosidic bonds by salivary α-amylase. Here, it was found that subjects could not detect DP 1, 2, or 3, but could still detect the MOS mixtures (DP 3-4, 5-6, and 6-7). Together, these results support the presence of a MOS taste perception mechanism independent of the T1R2 T1R3 taste receptor, and suggest it is stimulated by MOS greater than three units. After completing psychophysical testing, modifications to the MOS fractionation protocol were found to allow isolated MOS products from DP 3 to 7 to be collected. A second study thus presents the method to obtain these isolated products in a food-safe quality. Differential solubility using aqueous ethanol is first used to obtain a refined MOS preparation, which can then be further refined using column chromatography. A cellulose-based column in conjunction with aqueous ethanol mobile phases is used to separate the MOS preparation into linear, isolated MOS DP 3 to 7 in high purity. This fractionation method will not only be of high relevance to researchers interested in studying the physiological impacts of MOS consumption in humans, but will also be useful to future studies involving human taste perception of these saccharides.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Steven Van Tuyl(steve.vantuyl@oregonstate.edu) on 2017-06-26T20:02:00Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1PullicinAlexaJ2017.pdf: 1246334 bytes, checksum: 75117aed904c1ffc3e84d51d99a52bd6 (MD5)
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