The control and fate of enteric bacteria in the environment with particular emphasis on the factors influencing fecal indicator survival in waste storage facilities Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/2514np57m

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  • The indiscriminate release of fecal bacteria to the environment can present a public health hazard when pathogenic species gain access to drinking and recreational water sources. The extent of bacterial contamination of surface and ground waters associated with animal production units and waste application areas seems largely dependent on the production and waste management practices utilized by the individual livestock operation. Best management practices must be developed that will reduce to a small percentage the indicator and pathogenic bacteria lost from these sites. Animal production under confined conditions poses a significant threat as a source of large quantities of enteric bacteria and possibly pathogenic bacteria due to the massive quantities of manure generated by these operations. Manure storage is an integral component of waste management planning because it is used in almost all waste collection schemes and provides a time period where bacterial densities in the manure can be reduced either naturally or through some artificially induced treatment method. Extended manure storage allows greater flexibility as to when and where manure will be land applied and thus application during climatically optimal periods when surface bacterial die-off is maximized and losses through runoff or percolation are minimized. The die-off of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus bacteria in batch and repetitively loaded bovine manure storage systems was investigated. Some of the critical factors affecting bacterial die-off during storage are: (1) temperature, (2) organic matter content, (3) the initial bacterial population density, (4) the species of bacteria present, (5) pH, and (6) the existence or production of bacterially toxic or beneficial compounds in the manure storage unit. The addition of urine to stored feces had a profound but opposite effect on these indicator bacteria causing increased die-off of fecal coliform while enhancing the survival of fecal streptococcus. Two patterns of bacterial regrowth were observed during storage. An initial "aftergrowth" for 3 to 6 days following manure storage and a "delayed regrowth", where bacterial densities began to increase slowly, following 10 days of manure storage. At present it is impossible to predict when regrowth will occur or the extent to which it will progress where it does develop. A first order kinetic model successfully described the die-off of fecal bacteria in batch manure storage. Extension of this model to repetitively loaded storages proved less promising because of the strong influence of manure heterogeneity on bacterial die-off rates. The results of this investigation indicate that minimal die-off of bacteria is expected under typical storage temperature of 5°C to 15°C for extended dairy manure storage systems.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2013-05-31T21:52:36Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 CraneStuartR1988.pdf: 1539748 bytes, checksum: 19c9d82eccfe5e88847b33d607becf28 (MD5)
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2013-07-29T20:54:05Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 CraneStuartR1988.pdf: 1539748 bytes, checksum: 19c9d82eccfe5e88847b33d607becf28 (MD5)
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