The fertilizer value of shrimp and crab processing wastes Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/2801pk117

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  • The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 prohibits the discharge of seafood processing solid wastes into navigable waters after July 1, 1977. Oregon shrimp and crab processors must use other methods of disposal for the 15 to 30 million pounds of solid waste generated annually. The application of shrimp and crab wastes to nearby agricultural land can consume the wastes generated at major processing ports. As they came from the processing plant, shrimp and crab solid wastes contained 1.3% to 1.6% N, 0.47% to 0.54% P, other nutrients, 7% to 14% CaCO₃ equivalent, and 64% to 78% water. A greenhouse experiment was established to determine the effects of 1) grinding the wastes, 2) surface vs. incorporated waste applications, and 3) waste applications vs. inorganic N applied at equivalent N rates (56, 168, and 336 kg N/ha) with applications of P, S, and lime supplied with the inorganic N only. The fertilizer materials were applied on two coastal soils, and two pasture crops were grown. Forage yields and the P concentration in 'Potomac' orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were significantly higher with incorporated waste applications than with surface waste applications. Application method did not affect the P concentration in New Zealand white clover (Trifolium repens L. ). The difference in crop response between application methods would assumably be less under field conditions than was measured in the greenhouse. Grinding crab waste significantly increased forage yields when the waste was surface applied, but not when incorporated with the soil. Unground shrimp waste gave significantly higher forage yields than ground shrimp waste. No significant difference occurred in the forage yields, the N uptake by orchardgrass, or the P concentrations in orchardgrass and white clover among applications of shrimp waste, crab waste, and inorganic nutrients with lime. Applications of shrimp and crab wastes increased white clover yields over the control by a factor of more than 3.5 on Knappa silt loam (pH 4.9 - 5.0) but did not measurably increase the soil pH. It was assumed that the wastes, in the immediate area of the shell material, increased the availability of Ca, P, S, and Mo, decreased soluble soil Al, and allowed effective rhizobial nodulation and N fixation. Increasing application rates of shrimp and crab wastes to Knappa and Nehalem silt loams significantly increased the extractable soil P and Ca, and significantly decreased the extractable soil K after 28 weeks of orchardgrass growth. No consistent effect on soil pH was measured. In a second greenhouse experiment, N rates of 165 and 330 kg/ha and P rates of 61 and 122 kg/ha were supplied by shrimp waste and by inorganic sources to a limed coastal soil in a 2 x 2 x 2 complete factorial arrangement. Applications of shrimp waste resulted in significantly higher orchardgrass yields and P uptake than applications of the inorganic nutrients, but no significant difference occurred in the N uptake. In an irrigated coastal pasture, fresh shrimp waste was applied at 6,726, 17,936, and 35,872 kg/ha and ammonium phosphate (16-20-0 15 S) was applied at 224 and 448 kg/ha and a stand of orchardgrass was established. Forage yields were higher with shrimp waste than with ammonium phosphate. Shrimp waste applications beyond 17,936 kg/ha did not further increase the forage yield or P uptake. Shrimp waste applications increased extractable soil P, SO₄ -S, soluble salts, and NO₃ -N, but resulted in a depletion of soil K when measured at the end of the growing season. Shrimp and crab processing wastes are effective sources of N and P for crop plants and should be applied at rates necessary to supply the recommended rates of N.
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