The associates of four species of marine sponges of Oregon and Washington Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/2j62s830d

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  • Four species of sponge from the coasts of Oregon and Washington were studied and dissected for inhabitants and associates. All four species differed in texture, composition, and habitat, and likewise, the populations of associates of each species differed, even when samples of two of these species were found adjacent to one another. Generally, the relationships of the associates to the host sponges were of four sorts: 1. Inquilinism or lodging, either accidental or intentional; 2. Predation or grazing; 3. Competition for space resulting in "cohabitation" of an area, i.e. a plant or animal growing up through a sponge; and 4. Mutualism. Fish eggs in the hollow chambers of Homaxinella sp. represented a case of fish-in-sponge inqilinism, which is the first such one reported in the Pacific Ocean and in this sponge. The sponge Halichondria panicea, with an intracellular algal symbiont, was found to emit an attractant into the water, which Archidoris montereyensis followed in behavior experiments in preference to other sponges simultaneously offered. A total of 6098 organisms, representing 68 species, were found associated with the specimens of Halichondria panicea with densities of up to 19 organisms per cubic centimeter of sponge tissue. There were 9581 plants and animals found with Microciona prolifera, and 150 with Suberites lata. The two specimens of Homaxinella sp. examined harbored a total of four clusters of eggs, each consisting of 20 to 30 eggs.
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