Real time indoor positioning awareness systems aim to add localization capabilities to upcoming wireless technologies that are quickly becoming an important feature for indoor environment. RF-based impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) is a promising technology for in-door positioning systems due to obstacle penetration capabilities, immunity to multi-path and fading, and high resolution. Major challenge for IR-UWB systems is to achieve higher sensitivity, which puts high sampling demands on receivers, increasing the cost and power consumption. This research concentrates on the design of low power ultra-wideband transceivers and analyses different performance trade-offs.
The first part focuses on the trade-off and benefits of UWB for indoor localization. It also discusses battery-less wirelessly-powered UWB transceivers tags, power scavenging for low power wireless sensor networks. In the second part, a low power indoor localization system is proposed and design of low power interference tolerant RF receiver front-end is also presented. Finally, a wide-band inductor-less balun low-noise amplifier (LNA) is demonstrated. To achieve good noise figure, linearity and low power consumption, it exploits a current reuse input common source (CS) stage with source follower (SF) feedback and admittance scaled CS stage for noise and distortion cancellation. By separating gain and input match with active feedback, a higher gain is achieved. This architecture significantly decreases required area and provides high RF gain allowing for higher sensitivity with non-coherent RF receiver architecture.