Performance measurement and management (PMM) are functions used in many organizations to monitor and manage the activities of an organization. Although these functions are widely understood and applied across many types of industries and within a variety of contexts, there is no standardized terminology due to the multidisciplinary nature of the field. Existing definitions consist of diverse perspectives about the meaning and conceptualization of fundamental terms such as performance measurement system, performance management, indicator, metric, etc., which has led to inconsistencies in the application of such terms throughout the literature. Although this problem has been commonly acknowledged in the field, existing research has not attempted to address or reconcile these differences. Thus, this research study sought to explore and identify patterns of consistency in the application of these fundamental terms by researchers and practitioners in the field of PMM. A content analysis was performed on definitions collected from a variety of disciplines and/or contexts in which PMM is applied. The results of the content analysis included a proposed conceptual model that attempts to align the various terms and concepts related to PMM as a single conceptual system and a proposed set of generalized definitions for the terms that were analyzed. Based on these outcomes, an evaluation of the consistency in which terminology is applied in the definitions was made, and the results provide evidence to conclude that there are significant inconsistencies in how researchers and practitioners use key terms, regardless of the context or discipline in which they were applied. These exploratory results provide the foundation to help better define the current state of the field of PMM and the path forward towards constructing more robust definitions to be adopted and used by researchers and practitioners in the future.