Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

Effects of intrinsic factors in the transmission of bean yellow mosaic virus by aphids

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  • The effects of the inherent transmissibility of the virus and of the inherent transmitting ability of aphids on the transmission of bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) were studied along with four virus-vector relationships of BYMV and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.). In addition, investigations were made on the transmission of clover yellow mosaic virus (CYMV) by aphids and on the effects of temperature on the susceptibility of Lincoln pea to inoculation with bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) by M. persicae. All eight aphid species included in these tests transmitted BYMV. The aphids ranked in the order of descending efficiency of BYMV transmission as follows: Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thos.), Benton Co. (Oregon) clone of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), Myzus persicae (Sulz.), Aphis fabae Scop., Columbia Co. (Washington) clone of A. pisum, Macrosiphum rosae (L.), Therioaphis riehmi (Borner), Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kltb.) and Cavariella aegophodii (Scop.). Efficiency of transmission varied from 62 percent to 7 percent. B. helichrysi, C. aegopodii and T. riehmi have not previously been reported to transmit BYMV. Collections of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), from Oregon and Washington included biotypes differing in BYMV transmission, fecundity, body size and host preference. No differences were found among M. persicae clones. BYMV isolates differed in symptom expression and in the ease with which they were transmitted by aphids. Aphid transmissibility of BYMV was lost or greatly reduced following a single mechanical transfer. The vector-Iess isolate multiplied to the virtual exclusion of the aphid transmissible isolate when broad bean plants were inoculated simultaneously with both these isolates. Different areas of broad bean leaves were not equal as sources of BYMV for M. persicae. More aphids transmitted the virus from the interveinal chlorotic area than from the green areas along the veins. Post-inoculation temperature for 48-56 hours had a considerable influence on Lincoln pea susceptibility to BYMV infection by M. persicae inoculation. More plants were infected at 27 and 30°C than at 15, 18 or 24°C. Post-inoculation temperature treatment for 24 hours or less did not have any appreciable effect. Pre-inoculation temperature for 47-55 hours also considerably influenced plant susceptibility to BYMV infection by aphid inoculation. Twice as many plants were infected at 15°C as at 30°C. The effects of pre- and post-inoculation temperatures were not additive. The number of plants infected depended entirely on post-inoculation temperature. Artificial termination of acquisition probes did not have any appreciable effect on BYMV transmission by M. persicae. No significant differences in virus transmission were found for aphids with acquisition probes in the 11- to 45-second, range. Virus transmission increased with an increase in the number of test probes. Loss of BYMV by feeding M. persicae could be expressed exponentially. Half-Iife of the retention of virus by feeding aphids was about three minutes. Clover yellow mosaic virus could be easily confused with BYMV on the basis of symptom expression in Dwarf Horticultural and Bountiful cultivars of the bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L. cv. Lincoln, Vicia faba L. (secondary symptoms, especially on new sprouts), and in Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reyn. (primary reaction). It was not transmitted by A. pisum, A. fabae, C. aegopodii, M. euphorbiae, M. rosae and M. persicae.
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