Roles of yeast and lactic acid bacteria in malolactic fermentation of wines : a chemical and sensory study Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/3197xq223

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  • The purposeful induction of malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wines such as Pinot Noir and Chardonnay is an established commercial wine making practice in Oregon. This induction is not always successful, especially with white wines, such as Chardonnay. A study was initiated to examine the compatibility of yeasts commonly used in Oregon winemaking with various strains of malolactic bacteria. In preliminary and pilot plant scale experiments, the yeast strain found to be most conducive to malolactic fermentation by lactic acid bacteria was Montrachet (Red Star). The malolactic bacterial strains that were best able to complete malolactic fermentation in various wines, fermented by different yeast strains, were the two Oregon commercial strains, ER1A and Ey2d, and the Pinot Noir juice isolate, DAPN85A. Sensory analysis of aroma by difference from control test was done on Chardonnay wine fermented by 4 different yeast strains and 3 different malolactic bacterial strains. In all cases, there was an overall significant difference in malolactic fermented wine aroma when compared to control wines. Organic acid analyses by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyses of volatile compounds by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were done on selected Chardonnay wines. Propionic acid was found to diminish in malolactic fermented wines while acetic acid content increased. Isobutanol and isobutyraldehyde increased significantly in MLF wines, compared to the controls. Chemical analyses of MLF and control wines suggested two possible chemical reactions resulting from the MLF. The first was the reduction of isobutyraldehyde to isobutanol, and the second was the hydrolysis of isobutyl acetate to isobutyraldehyde and acetate. On all GC chromatograms of wines, where MLF had occurred, there was an unidentified peak close to the retention time of isoamyl acetate. This peak was not evident in wines where MLF had not occurred. Eight compounds were tentatively identified by GC-MS in malolactic fermented wines which were not found in the control wines. These were 4-methyl-3-pentanoic acid, methyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, 1,12-tridecadiene, hexadecanoic acid, and a compound which was tentatively identified as farnesol, or 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid. The latter four compounds had identity fits of less than 900 from the mass spectral analysis. Whether any of these eight compounds match the unknown "ML peak" found in the GC chromatograms is unknown.
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