Fascioloidiasis of cattle, deer and elk in Oregon and southern Washington Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/37720g438

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  • The biology, history and synonyms of reviewed and the known distribution given. Fascioloides magna were reviewed and the known distribution given. Studies have shown that Cervidae are the natural hosts and domestic ruminants the accidental hosts. The parasite is reportedly pathogenic to goats and sheep but causes severe tissue reactions in cattle. The trematode is unable to reproduce in cattle but may occasionally in sheep and goats. During this study 107 Oregon and 19 Washington cattle were traced from abattoirs to the source of infection. The main source of cattle infections for Oregon and southern Washington was the Columbia River area. Other enzootic areas were Wheeler, Klamath, Douglas and Coos Counties in Oregon and Yakima County in Washington. Survey data showed that F. magna was either rare or did not occur in deer and elk in the Coastal Mountain Range or in Benton County of the Willamette Valley in Oregon. There was a high incidence of infected elk in the Cascade Range of Lane County. Reports indicated the incidence was also high in deer of the Columbia River area from Portland to Astoria. On the major study area, Tenasillahae Island in the Columbia River, 94 percent of the deer and 77 percent of cattle were infected. Two proven snail hosts, Stagnicola Palustris and Pseudosuccinea columella were the only Lymnaeidae snails found on the island and it was concluded that they were intermediate hosts for F. magna in this area. Stagnicola palustris, P. columella, Lymnaea auricularia and Stagnicola bulimoides were found in Oregon and S. palustris in Washington. No naturally infected snails were found nor were any experimental infections successful. Pigmentation of the liver and lymph nodes, omentum and diaphragm was found in each case of infected deer and elk even when no closed cysts were present. A massive infection in one Tenasillahae Island deer resulted in adhesions, hyperplasia, necrosis of the liver and extensive pigmentation. The ova from cattle were darker colored, thicker shelled and shorter than those from deer and elk. Fluke ova incubated in an "egg bath" hatched by the 12th day. A theory of the reabsorption of F. magna cysts by the omentum of deer as a means of eliminating the cysts from the liver was presented. It was concluded that F. magna was of minor importance as a state-wide problem in Oregon. The Columbia River area was considered a major local problem and would become increasingly important as the use of islands and diked areas are more extensively used for raising livestock.
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