Development of a lexicon for staling aromas in North American lager and analysis of consumer preference and difference Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/3b591c086

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  • Staling in beer is inevitable. Oxidation and increased temperatures are the main causes of stale flavors in bottled beers. Since 1934, research has been done to identify compounds and pathways involved in creating stale flavors. Although many research papers report stale flavors, there is not a lexicon per se of stale aromas for North American lagers. This study has been divided into two parts, 1) the process of developing a lexicon for stale aromas for North American lagers and its application, and 2) the use of a consumer panel to determine whether the North American lager consumer has a preference for aged versus fresh beer and whether the consumer could perceive a difference between the two. In the first study, three brands of North American lagers were aged in 27°C storage for three months and 38°C storage for two weeks. A lexicon for staling aroma for North American lagers was created, using a trained descriptive panel. The lexicon had two tiers; the first tier had five descriptors that were category headings for the second tier of descriptors. Panelists were instructed to rate the first tier descriptors, but using the descriptors in the second tier was optional. To validate the lexicon, descriptive analysis was performed on the stored samples. The data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) for the first tier descriptors and generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) for the second tier descriptors. The lexicon was used successfully, characterizing the control beers as sulfury and fruity and the aged beers as sweet brown. Within the sulfury category, panelists described control beers with the attributes perm solution and skunky. Within the sweet brown category, panelists described the aged beers with the descriptors baked pineapple and honey. The beers stored at different storage temperatures behaved differently across time. The maps constructed with PCA and GPA show a tendency for control samples to start out sulfury and, through time, age with sweet brown characteristics. In the second study, a consumer panel was implemented to 1) determine if the average North American lager consumer had a preference for fresh versus stored beer, and 2) to determine if perceivable differences existed between the fresh versus stored samples. A consumer test was designed using the three North American lagers that were tested in the trained panel. The target number of consumers for each brand was 100. The aged beer was stored at 38°C for 1 and 2 weeks, and the control was stored at 1°C for that time period. A preference test, followed by a triangle test, was performed on control versus 1 week at 38°C and control versus 2 week at 38°C for each brand (2 preference and 2 triangle tests for each brand; control versus 1 week and control versus 2 weeks). The results showed no significant preference for any brand/time point. Brand A had the only significant difference (p <0.05) between samples stored at 38°C for 2 weeks and the control (The results showed no preference). Additional research must be done for more conclusive information, but this research shows that a small group of North American lager consumers do not have a preference between aged beer and fresh beer and, for the most part, cannot tell a difference between aged beer and fresh beer.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-01-09T18:19:48Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 MUIJENCHRISTINA2001.pdf: 1096076 bytes, checksum: 771d9f1a8fc32f642bdf10601f65f730 (MD5)
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2011-12-05T18:49:50Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 MUIJENCHRISTINA2001.pdf: 1096076 bytes, checksum: 771d9f1a8fc32f642bdf10601f65f730 (MD5)

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