A comparative analysis of three approaches to in-service education designed to change the behavior of classroom teachers in the social studies (K-12) Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/3b591c33j

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  • A comparative analysis of three approaches to in-service education ... in the social studies, (K-12)
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  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an in-service project for teachers of the social studies (K-12). The project was sponsored by the Region II Committee of the Oregon Council for Curriculum and Instruction (O.C.C.I.) during the period from November 1, 1966 to April 1, 1969. Teachers from three grade levels of the project (K-12) were unavailable, therefore only ten grade levels were represented in the study. Ten teachers from each of the three project teacher groups were selected from, the ten grade levels. Ten non-project teachers were identified as a control group using the project's selection procedure. The Flanders Interaction Analysis System was used to observe the verbal behavior of the forty teachers included in the study. The ten categories of the system are: accepting feelings, praise and encouragement, accepting ideas, asking questions, lecturing, direction-giving, criticism, predictable responses, student-initiated talk, and silence or confusion. Differences in the ten categories of the Flanders system were then statistically analyzed between the project groups and the control group. Differences were also measured between project groups. The chi-square test of differences was used for statistical analysis. Findings Project teachers showed a statistically significant difference in the amounts of direct and indirect influence exercised in their classrooms as compared to the control teachers. Control teachers utilized much more time in their classrooms for lecture, more time for giving directions, and equivalent time for criticism as compared to project teachers (direct influence). Project teachers utilized more time for praise, accepting ideas, and asking questions as compared to control teachers (indirect influence). The category of accepting feelings (indirect influence) was not observed in the control group and used very little by project teachers. Differences could not be statistically tested. Control teachers utilized significantly more time for silence and/or confusion in their classrooms as compared to project teachers. The chi-square test of differences revealed very significant differences between project and control teachers in the amounts of student talk in evidence in classroom discussions. Project teachers utilized much more time for student-initiated talk and more time for student responses in their classrooms as compared to control teachers. Recommendations In view of the findings of this study, the writer offers the following recommendations to schools of teacher education, public schools and other groups concerned with in-service programs for teachers. 1. Experimentation should be conducted toward development of change agents (curriculum catalysts) for each school facility, capable of identifying and implementing processes of involvement for teachers leading to the use of (1) inductive methods, and (2) teaching strategies that are applicable to the objectives of the social studies. 2. Institutions involved in in-service education should explore vehicles for introducing more of the affective domain into the classroom. Numerous techniques such as the value continuum and materials on controversial issues are available for developing qualities of receiving, responding, and valuing. 3. Institutions involved in in-service education should examine further possibilities for in-service curricular projects that include vertical representation of teachers from all grade levels (K-12). This experience can be especially valuable for a teacher to understand cognitive expectations of students on all grade levels in the various disciplines. 4. Further research is needed to determine the effects of social studies projects upon the verbal behavior of teachers in terms of the impact of each of the variables (in-service experiences) introduced in the projects.
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