Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

The effect of direct application of liquid fertilizers on the germiniation, emergence and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Public Deposited

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  • The effect of four basic liquid fertilizers: Solution 32, 10-34-0-.9, Thio-Sul, and Potash solution; and one commercial liquid fertilizer, Feast 9-18-9, on germination, emergence, and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were evaluated under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions. Experiments included: 1) preliminary study of basic fertilizer sources to select the ranges of treatments to study in germination, greenhouse, and field experiments; 2) germination experiments on all fertilizer sources to evaluate the effect of selected rates on germination, germination rate index, and seedling dry weight at 10 days after planting; 3) greenhouse experiments on all fertilizer sources to evaluate seedling emergence, emergence rate index, and seedling dry weight at 10 and 20 days after planting; and 4) measurement of seedling emergence, emergence rate index, and seedling dry weight at 10 and 20 days after first emergence, on Woodburn soil at two planting dates to obtain different field environmental conditions. Preliminary experiments showed three distinct concentration levels for each source: 1) lethal dose, where no signs of germination were present; were found at 4, 5, 5, and 15 % solution concentration for Solution 32, 10-34-0-.9, Thio-Sul, and Potash solution, respectively; 2) critical dose, where concentration levels showed a delay or detrimental effects on germination, was identified at 0.25, 0.08, 0.08, and 3 % solution concentration for the same materials; and 3) safe dose, where seeds produced normal seedlings. Simple regression analysis on preliminary experiments indicated that as the rate of liquid fertilizer source increased, total germination decreased in a linear manner. For each 10 L ha-1 of product applied, germination decreased in 1.52, 0.86, 0.89, and 0.40 % for Solution 32, 10-34-0-.9, Thio-Sul, and Potash solution, respectively. The technique developed in this study appears to be a quick and efficient method to screen for liquid fertilizer toxicity. The laboratory and greenhouse technique allows for more controlled conditions than in field studies. Under field conditions, a greater range of treatments would be required. Among the basic liquid fertilizers, Thio-Sul showed greater toxicity, on a L haThe effect of four basic liquid fertilizers: Solution 32, 10-34-0-.9, Thio-Sul, and Potash solution; and one commercial liquid fertilizer, Feast 9-18-9, on germination, emergence, and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were evaluated under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions. Experiments included: 1) preliminary study of basic fertilizer sources to select the ranges of treatments to study in germination, greenhouse, and field experiments; 2) germination experiments on all fertilizer sources to evaluate the effect of selected rates on germination, germination rate index, and seedling dry weight at 10 days after planting; 3) greenhouse experiments on all fertilizer sources to evaluate seedling emergence, emergence rate index, and seedling dry weight at 10 and 20 days after planting; and 4) measurement of seedling emergence, emergence rate index, and seedling dry weight at 10 and 20 days after first emergence, on Woodburn soil at two planting dates to obtain different field environmental conditions. Preliminary experiments showed three distinct concentration levels for each source: 1) lethal dose, where no signs of germination were present; were found at 4, 5, 5, and 15 % solution concentration for Solution 32, 10-34-0-.9, Thio-Sul, and Potash solution, respectively; 2) critical dose, where concentration levels showed a delay or detrimental effects on germination, was identified at 0.25, 0.08, 0.08, and 3 % solution concentration for the same materials; and 3) safe dose, where seeds produced normal seedlings. Simple regression analysis on preliminary experiments indicated that as the rate of liquid fertilizer source increased, total germination decreased in a linear manner. For each 10 L ha-1 of product applied, germination decreased in 1.52, 0.86, 0.89, and 0.40 % for Solution 32, 10-34-0-.9, Thio-Sul, and Potash solution, respectively. The technique developed in this study appears to be a quick and efficient method to screen for liquid fertilizer toxicity. The laboratory and greenhouse technique allows for more controlled conditions than in field studies. Under field conditions, a greater range of treatments would be required. Among the basic liquid fertilizers, Thio-Sul showed greater toxicity, on a L ha⁻¹ basis, to germinating wheat seeds in germination and greenhouse experiments. Solution 32 and 10-34-0-.9 sources showed a similar and intermediate response in toxicity. Potash solution was tolerated at a much higher concentration. The differences were not detected under the prevailing field conditions. The commercial liquid fertilizer studied, Feast (9-18-9), showed no detrimental effect at the recommended rates for wheat. 1 basis, to germinating wheat seeds in germination and greenhouse experiments. Solution 32 and 10-34-0-.9 sources showed a similar and intermediate response in toxicity. Potash solution was tolerated at a much higher concentration. The differences were not detected under the prevailing field conditions. The commercial liquid fertilizer studied, Feast (9-18-9), showed no detrimental effect at the recommended rates for wheat.
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