|Abstract or Summary
- The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of therapeutic non- directive play treatment with third grade boys who were low achievers in reading and to determine how treatment was associated with changes in reading achievement: vocabulary and comprehension; reading attitude and academic self-concept; role expectations and self-adequacy. Five public elementary schools in the Lebanon-Crowfoot area provided a population of 107 third grade boys who were identified as having an I. Q. of 90 or above. A reading achievement test (Gates-MacGinitie, Primary C, Form 1) was administered in order to obtain reading age. The subjects whose reading comprehension age was 1.4 (one year, four months) below mental age were designated as being underachievers in reading. The 52 boys who met the criteria were given pre-tests on reading attitude(Primary Pupil Reading. Attitude Inventory) and academic self-concept (Self-Concept and Motivation Inventory). The subjects were then placed in one of four experimental groups:therapeutic non-directive play and reading, therapeutic non-directive play, only, reading only, or control. The treatment groups experienced 27 sessions and each session was of a 30-minute duration. The control group had only the pre- and post-testing common to all.Six hypotheses were formulated which compared therapeutic non-directive play and reading with therapeutic non-directive play only,reading only, or the no treatment control group. The specific areas compared were reading achievement, reading attitude, and self concept.Analysis of variance, one-way classification was applied to the pre-test, post-test and post-test/pre-test group differences in order to determine if there were significant findings. If the F ratio was significant at the .05 level, the Table of Least Significant Differences was consulted in order to ascertain which experimental group was producing the effect. The analysis of data revealed that the therapeutic non-directive play and reading group demonstrated greater significant gains (.05and .01) in role expectations, an element of self-concept (post-test)and in total self-concept (post-test/pre-test) than the play only, reading only, or the control group. The play only group produced more significant results (. 01) in the post-test/pre-test measures in total self-concept than the reading only or the control group. There were no significant differences among groups in reading achievement or reading attitude.