The biology and control of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) on irrigation ditchbanks Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/3n204277b

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  • Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) is a desirable pasture grass on wet areas in the Northern United States and Southern Canada, but it is a serious and troublesome ditchbank weed in the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountain States. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the development, growth habits, and control of reed canarygrass on irrigation ditchbanks. Ninety-seven percent or more of the seed of this species germinated ediately after harvest under favorable conditions. Seeds stored in damp sand at constant temperatures of 1 and 23C for periods of time up to one year did not germinate until they were subjected to alternating temperatures of 20 and 30C. The first rhizome development on reed canarygrass seedlings grown in the greenhouse was observed 26 days after emergence. Within 16 weeks after emergence, the plants were in bloom and had 48 short rhizomes (6.5 cm maximum) per plant. In the field, 88 percent or more of the emergent: shoots on established plants originated from rhizome or tiller buds located in the upper 5 cm of soil. Some shoots developed from buds located at depths up to 20 cm, but none arose from a greater depth. Several vegetative characteristics of reed canarygrass plants collected from six irrigation projects in four states differed widely when grown in a garden at Prosser, Washington. The plant height, seed weights, panicle length, leaf length, leaf width, number of stems per plant, stem diameter, and the rate of spread by rhizomes were statistically different at the 5% level of probability. Large differences in the color and posture of the leaves were also observed. Plants collected near Huntley, Montana, were the most vigorous. Total available carbohydrates in the roots and rhizomes of established reed canarygrass were not affected by single applications of 2,2,dichloropropionic acid (dalapon) at 22 kg/ha, 3-amino-s-triazoleammonium thiocyanate (amitrole-T) at 4.5 kg/ha, or 1,1i-dimethy1-4,4'- bipyridinium ion (paraquat) at 1.1 kg/ha until 2 months after treatments were applied in May. By October, single applications of dalapon and amitrole-T and five repeated applications of paraquat reduced the carbohydrates 24, 28, and 50 percent, respectively. Two additional treatments of dalapon or amitrole-T or five additional treatments of paraquat in the second year of the study did not reduce the carbohydrate levels below those present during the first year. Dalapon and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), applied to the soil or to the senescent foliage in November at rates from 22 to 88 kg/ha, provided good to excellent temporary control of reed canarygrass without denuding ditchbanks. Redtop (Avostis alba L.) and reed canarygrass seedlings developed on the treated areas the following summer and reed canarygrass retained the dominant position unless the seedlings and plants that escaped the fall treatment were controlled with post-emergence applications of dalapon or amitrole-T. When the latter plants were controlled, redtop developed from natural or artificial seeding of the ditchbank and became the dominant species. Maximum residue levels of TCA in irrigation water ranged from 104 to 225 ppb following fall applications of TCA at 82 kg/ha to both banks of three irrigation laterals that ranged from 4 to 14.5 kilometers long. Average residue levels at the downstream ends of the laterals during the first four hours that water flowed through them in the spring ranged from 34 to 47 ppb. Eight hours after the initial flow of water through laterals 4, 8.4, and 14.5 kilometers long, residue levels were less than 1 ppb in the two shortest laterals and only 2.7 ppb in the longest lateral. No residues were detectable in the water from any of the laterals after 48 hours.
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  • File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome, 8-bit Grayscale) using ScandAll PRO 1.8.1 on a Fi-6770A in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 5.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2014-01-31T20:34:29Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 ComesRichardD1971.pdf: 3795011 bytes, checksum: b493da890c7097f2780a9c588bfe9ef3 (MD5)
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2014-01-28T14:54:16Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 ComesRichardD1971.pdf: 3795011 bytes, checksum: b493da890c7097f2780a9c588bfe9ef3 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2014-01-31T20:34:29Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 ComesRichardD1971.pdf: 3795011 bytes, checksum: b493da890c7097f2780a9c588bfe9ef3 (MD5) Previous issue date: 1971-05-10

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