Microcosm studies of bioaugmentation with a butane-utilizing mixed culture : microbial community structure and 1,1-DCE cometabolism Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/3t945t59r

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  • The 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) cometabolic transformation abilities of indigenous and bioaugmented microorganisms were compared in microcosms constructed with groundwater and aquifer solids from the Moffett Field site, CA. Microbial community structure in the microcosms and possible community shifts due to 1,1-DCE transformation stress was evaluated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method (T-RFLP). An existing biotransformation model was used to simulate the experimental data using parameter values determined by Kim et al. (2002) and Rungkamol (2001) with small adjustments to the parameter values. The laboratory microcosm studies showed that both indigenous and bioaugmented butane utilizers were capable of transforming 1,1-DCE when fed butane as a primary substrate. A butane-grown enriched culture was bioaugmented into the microcosms and exposed to several repeated additions of butane and/or 1,1-DCE, ranging from 7.1 to 76 μmol and from 0.17 to 1.99 μmol, respectively. The bioaugmented butane-utilizers showed a reduced lag period compared to the indigenous butane-utilizers. The greatest ability to transform 1,1-DCE was observed in bioaugmented microcosms, simultaneously exposed to butane and 1,1-DCE. Very little 1,1-DCE was transformed in the bioaugmented microcosms that were not fed butane, presumably due to lack of reductant supply and/or product toxicity of 1,1-DCE transformation. Microbial community analyses revealed similar results for replicate microcosms and differences in the community structure in microcosms subjected to different patterns of substrate addition and 1,1-DCE cometabolism. 1,1-DCE transformation resulted in temporal fluctuations in specific bacterial groups in the bioaugmented microcosms. It could be inferred that microorganisms, correlated with the T-RFL of 183 base pair (bp) were generally predominant in butane-fed bioaugmented microcosms simultaneously exposed to 1,1-DCE. Bioaugmented microcosms that were pre-exposed to 1,1-DCE for 29 days in the absence of growth substrate, followed by the addition of butane showed a significantly different microbial community from bioaugmented microcosms fed butane and 1,1-DCE simultaneously. Microorganisms with T-RFL of 179 or 277.8 bp dominated in these microcosms. These differences were possibly the result of extensive 1,1-DCE transformation product toxicity during the pre-exposure phase of the tests. A model developed by Kim et al. (2002) was used to mathematically describe the rate and extent of butane utilization and the cometabolic transformation of 1,1-DCE in the microcosm tests. Using the kinetic parameter values previously determined by Kim et al. (2002) and Rungkamol (2001), heuristic fits were obtained between the experimental data and model simulations. The model successfully predicted the trend of the butane utilization and 1,1-DCE transformation. The model outputs were statistically quantified for their fit to the experimental data by estimating Standard Error of Estimate (SEE). A reasonable fit between model predictions and experimental observations was achieved. A significant contribution of this study was developing the laboratory methods to evaluate the microbial abilities to cometabolize 1,1-DCE and determining the communities of microorganisms correlated with those biotransformation activities. Furthermore, the model comparison to experimental data indicated that there was a potential in using the existing model to predict and improve bioremediation strategies. The results showed the successful bioaugmentation of a butane-utilizing culture to improve transformation performance.
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