Airborne sampling of particles emitted to the atmosphere from Kraft paper mill processes and their characterization by electron microscopy Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/41687m15g

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  • A high volume sampling system, employing Nuclepore filters and designed for sampling particulate in the plumes from industrial sources using a light aircraft, is described. The effluent of kraft paper mills was sampled using this system and then analyzed by electron microscopy. Size distributions of particles were obtained at several points downwind in the plume from a kraft mill. The size distribution close into the stack was log normal. There was a statistically significant reduction in median particle size a mile to two miles downwind of the stack. Also, the size distribution deviated from log normal. Several possible mechanisms are postulated as causes for this phenomena. Plume dilution with particles of smaller average size appeared to be a significant factor in causing the decrease. The median particle size close to the kraft mill was about 0. 35 micrometers. At downwind points it was found to be as low as 0. 15 micrometers. Chemical identification of kraft mill particles was accomplished using electron diffraction techniques. Kraft mill salt cake was identified in particulate samples collected as far downwind from the mill as eight miles. Sodium sulfate (Na₂SO₄) and calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) particles were both identified. Morphological associations were made with chemical identity. Sodium sulfate morphology was related to sampling technique. Due to the presence of water in the plume this compound appeared to have been fluid when sampled, and to have crystallized as a hydrate in a flat, smeared form on the filter. Calcium carbonate was a relatively large flaky particle appearing in both anhydrous and hydrated forms. Approximately 100 electron micrographs including both transmission and scanning micrographs are presented which support the sizing and morphological results.
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