Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Influence of Processing Parameters on the Inactivation of Salmonella spp. During the Cooking Step of Jerky Production Using a Commercial-Scale Dehydrator Public Deposited

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  • United States Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) guidelines for beef jerky processing support producers' ability to satisfy the performance standard requirements for achieving a 5-log reduction in Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. The first compliance guide for jerky processors was created in response to several Salmonella outbreaks linked to jerky produced in New Mexico in the 1990s and early 2000s. This document was designed to provide jerky processors with specific options for process parameters and provide transparency of FSIS's interpretations of the performance standard for reduction of pathogens in meat products required as part of their HACCP system (9 CFU 417.4(a)). Specific processing parameters (time-temperature-humidity) for lethality processing are from Appendix A "Compliance Guidelines for Meeting Lethality Performance Standards for Certain Meat and Poultry Products" of the 1999 Performance Standards Final Rule. The prescriptive parameters found in Appendix A are based on cooked beef regulations established in 1978 after several outbreaks were associated with these products. Despite substantial difference in product dimension, formulation, product quality considerations, and type of equipment, FSIS applied these same requirements to roast beef and beef jerky. The objective for this research was to validate a combination of temperature and time requirements in a commercial-scale dehydrator that would achieve the performance standard of a 5-log reduction of the pertinent foodborne pathogens (Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) on beef jerky. Beef strips were inoculated and treated under four different treatment regimes. Unseasoned, unmarinated beef strips were inoculated with a Salmonella cocktail (Trials 1-4), Salmonella Senftenberg (Trials 1-2), E. coli O157:H7 (Trials 1-2) or STEC (Trials 1-2) at >7 log CFU/g. Thermal processing for the four trials was designed with the intent to achieve internal temperature and time performance standard specified in Appendix A. Despite meeting several time-temperature combinations in Appendix A, Trials 1, 2 and 3 did not achieve the performance standard for Salmonella lethality with average log reductions of 3.38 ± 0.63, 3.50 ± 0.49, 4.81 ± 0.69 log CFU/g, respectively. Increasing the chamber temperature and increasing the product load in the chamber by 50%, resulted in a significant increase in lethality of Salmonella (7.11 ± 1.05 log CFU/g); however, 4.3% (6/138) of individual samples did not achieve the requisite 5-log reduction. Relative humidity was a critical parameter in process lethality. Higher product load in Trial 4 caused an increase in relative humidity in the chamber during processing, increasing the overall lethality over Trial 3. In order to facilitate an understanding of current regulations, the second portion of this thesis provides a chronological account of outbreaks and the corresponding response by FSIS. The review portion of this work critically evaluates the history of meat processing regulations and the existing research in an attempt to identify opportunities for improving current regulations, specifically in regards to beef jerky processing. The review of current research and regulatory guidelines highlights the lack of functional understanding of the contribution of humidity and air velocity to the lethality of foodborne pathogens. Future research is needed to evaluate the impact of these parameters to provide more useful guidance to the industry that is practical and effective at achieving food safety goals. FSIS acknowledges this deficit and has established this research as a priority in their current initiatives.
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  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2016-06-24T16:10:08Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 ‌MinarsichJosephW2016.pdf: 4074842 bytes, checksum: 7d4d6ae4f5d945c829e718f4f163d8c0 (MD5) license_rdf: 1223 bytes, checksum: d127a3413712d6c6e962d5d436c463fc (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-05-31
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  • description.provenance : Rejected by Julie Kurtz(julie.kurtz@oregonstate.edu), reason: Rejecting for the following reasons - 1) Pretext pages are not numbered so remove the roman numerals 2) Abstract page - remove "Dr." in front of your major professor's name and underline your name 3) Title page - remove the under line under the title 4) Approval page - change "Chair of the Department" to Head of the Department of Food Science and Technology. 5) Bolding is not allowed in the pretext pages so remove the bold in the headings - ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS and TABLE OF CONTENTS. Also use all caps in headings. Everything else looks good. Once revised, log back into ScholarsArchive and go to the upload page. Replace the attached file with the revised file and resubmit. Thanks, Julie on 2016-06-21T16:30:03Z (GMT)
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  • description.provenance : Submitted by Joseph Minarsich (minarsij@oregonstate.edu) on 2016-06-23T01:14:51Z No. of bitstreams: 2 ‌MinarsichJosephW2016.pdf: 4074842 bytes, checksum: 7d4d6ae4f5d945c829e718f4f163d8c0 (MD5) license_rdf: 1223 bytes, checksum: d127a3413712d6c6e962d5d436c463fc (MD5)
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