- The development of whey beverages including whey wine has been
an area of whey utilization research. One study to produce a commercially
salable wine from sweet whey, particularly cheddar whey, was
undertaken. It included developing a process to clarify the naturally
cloudy wine, monitoring the physical and chemical changes which occurred
during the wine making process, comparing the sensory differences in the
unclarified and clarified wine, and incorporating the wine sediment in
a food product.
The criteria for the clarification process were simplicity, legality,
reasonable cost, minimal usage of energy and equipment, and
maintenance of the wine character and quality. Existing procedures
for clarifying grape wine such as filtration, centrifugation, and the
addition of fining agents, casein, Cold Mix Sparkolloid, gelatin,
tannin, and bentonite were investigated. Also investigated were techniques
used to separate the proteins from whey; specifically pH
adjustment (with potassium carbonate) and precipitation (with sodium hexametaphosphate). It was found that the most feasible clarification
procedure was the addition of 0.20-0.50 percent bentonite on a dry
weight basis followed by a polishing filtration.
Determinations for lactose, protein, fat, ash, and total solids
and tests for Brix, pH, titratable acidity, and alcohol content were
performed to monitor the effects of fermentation, aging, and clarification.
The changes noted during fermentation and aging were primarily
due to alcoholic and lactic acid fermentations. Bentonite fining had
a dilution effect but did increase the ash content of the wine.
Triangular difference tests with blindfolded tasters indicated
that there was no significant taste difference between cloudy wine
and bentonite-fined and filtered wine. A cursory gas-liquid chromatographic
analysis revealed only a slight difference in the gross
volatile components of unclarified and clarified wines.
The wine sediment was dried to a paste and substituted at the
five and ten percent levels for nonfat dry milk in a commercial sugar
cookie recipe. A preference test showed that the sediment decreased
the acceptability because of its "acid" taste. It is likely that the
sediment could successfully be utilized in a fermented or cultured