|Abstract or Summary
- Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of
p, p'-DDE and p, 'Dr-DDT on the performance of Coturnix quail (Co-.
turnix coturnix japonica) fed an adequate and deficient calcium diet.
In Experiment I four hundred day-old Coturnix quail of mixed
sex were fed 0 and 50 ppm of p, p'-DDE on a soybean meal-glucose
monohydrate diet to 2 weeks of age. Thereafter the dosage was
increased to 100 ppm on a corn-soybean meal diet. At the beginning
of 25 percent egg production (10 wks. ) the two populations were subdivided
so that the pesticide treatments were reversed for one-half
each population. The resulting four populations were further subdivided
to receive diets containing 0.5 or 3. 0 percent calcium and
treatments were duplicated with 12 females per pen. The males
were separated from the females, housed 20 birds per pen in duplicate
lots and fed the lower calcium level.
In the second experiment two hundred day-old quail of mixed
sex were distributed randomly into four groups of 50 each and fed
the same breeder-type diet which contained either 0, 100, or 300 ppm
of p, p' -DDE or 100 ppm of p, p' -DDT. Sexually mature males were
housed with females at a ratio of 1:1. At 25 percent egg production
each group was subdivided so that half received diets with either 3.0
or 0. 5 percent calcium and the resulting eight treatments were duplicated
with 12 birds per pen.
The quail through eight 28-day production periods in Experiment
I seemed unaffected by the DDE intake during the developing
period. Egg shell thickness, as indicated by specific gravity, and
number of cracked eggs were not influenced by pesticide treatment
in either experiment. Eggs from quail fed the lower calcium level
showed markedly thinner shells and more cracks, however, there
were no pesticide X calcium interactions. Egg production, feed consumption,
egg weight and female body weight were not significantly
affected by the pesticide treatments. Female mortality was higher
with 3 percent calcium (associated with prolapse), and with the higher
Males seemed more sensitive to DDE toxicity than females and
experienced greater mortality which was accompanied by a gradual
loss of body weight along with decreased fertilizing capacity. Hatchability
of fertile eggs and livability of chicks were not significantly affected by the pesticide treatments, however hatchability was reduced
on the lower calcium diet.