|Abstract or Summary
- The purpose of this research was to evaluate the
effectiveness of two smoking cessation programs -- one
group and one self-help -- which were developed and are
currently employed by the American Cancer Society.
The research was conducted in a work setting, and
all subjects were employees of the State of California's
Resource Agency who expressed a desire for assistance in
giving up cigarette smoking. Through a randomizing
process, 218 subjects were assigned to either a Group
Treatment, a Self-help Treatment, or a nontreated Control.
The research was divided into two parts: (1) an
experimental component which compared the effects of two
smoking cessation techniques, and (2) a descriptive
component which sought to identify correlates of change
in smoking behavior from a preselected list of personal
and demographic characteristics. Within the experimental component, the following
null hypotheses were tested:
1. There will be no significant difference in mean
smoking behavior among smokers assigned to
Group Treatment, Self-help Treatment, and
smokers assigned to a Control.
2. There will be no significant difference in mean
smoking behavior between smokers assigned to
Group Treatment and smokers assigned to Self-help
Analysis of variance was used to examine treatment
effectiveness. A four-month follow-up revealed that all
subjects receiving treatment demonstrated a significantly
greater reduction in smoking activity than subjects
assigned to a nontreated Control (p < .01, F = 22.17). Of
the two treatments, subjects assigned to the Group Treatment
exhibited a greater reduction in smoking activity than subjects
assigned to the Self-help Treatment (p < .01, F = 10.75).
With regard to 100 percent abstinence, the Group Treatment
demonstrated clear superiority (40 percent) over the Self-help
Treatment (18 percent) and the Control (5 percent) when
measured at the four-month follow-up.
In the descriptive portion of the research, eight
variables were identified as correlates of change in
smoking behavior. The strongest correlation was demonstrated
by the baseline variable at both the one-month
(r = .68) and four-month (r = .64) follow-up measurements. Smokers who reported more ease in "picturing themselves
as nonsmokers" or reported more confidence "that they
would not be smoking five years hence" did significantly
better at both the one-month and four-month measurements.
In general, smokers did better who reported more "stop-smoking
willpower," more "confidence about stopping," or
perceived an "improved health status from quitting."
Contrary to previous research, there was no significant
difference in smoking behavior between sexes.
The study demonstrates the practicality of conducting
a smoking cessation program in a work environment.
However, improved treatment methodologies and long-term
maintenance of nonsmoking behavior are cited as specific
areas in need of further research.