Genetic diversity in coastal cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden in Prince William Sound, Alaska Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/4q77ft45t

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  • Genetic diversity of two salmonid species, Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) and coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) in Prince William Sound, Alaska were examined at multiple spatial scales with three molecular markers. Pleistocene glaciers covered what is now Prince William Sound 8,000- 12,000 years ago and both species colonized the region subsequently. Because these species have different migratory behavior and historic ranges I expected to see different patterns of genetic diversity within Prince William Sound. Haplotype frequency and nucleotide diversity in sixteen mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction fragment enzymes combinations in Prince William Sound were higher in Dolly Varden than in coastal cutthroat trout, which were close to fixation. Low estimates of these measures in coastal cutthroat trout may reflect a founder effect resulting from colonization of this region from a single glacial refuge (Cascadia) and low dispersal capacity. To examine if genetic diversity in coastal cutthroat trout was higher in areas of glacial refuge, three additional locations from throughout their distributional range were examined with the same restriction enzymes. Haplotype frequency and nucleotide diversity were lower in areas that were glaciated than estimates of the same measures in a glacial refuge. Again, founder effects during colonization of the three glaciated sites may account for these results. Genetic variation of Dolly Varden and coastal cutthroat trout was also examined within and among populations in Prince William Sound with microsatellites and allozymes. The pattern of genetic variation in coastal cutthroat trout was complex. There was lower genetic diversity within populations that were recently colonized following recent de-glaciation (150-350 ybp). Genetic diversity among some coastal cutthroat trout populations was high, which possibly reflects restricted migration. In other trout populations there was low diversity among populations, possible reflecting historic gene flow. In Dolly Varden, genetic variation among anadromous populations in Prince William Sound was low. There were large differences among resident and anadromous populations. These data provide information for the management for both species, which may reduce the risk of the loss of genetic diversity within local populations.
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