Public housing (PH) provides a substantial portion of the housing in both developed and less developed countries, and the demand for it is increasing. The PH projects, however, are facing many challenges that are affecting their performance and cause their failures. The United States has demolished large portions of their PH projects because of their inherited social, environmental, economic, and political problems that affect their performance. The federal government has stopped funding new development and turned to the private sector to provide PH, which has increased the PH crisis in the US, increasing the concern that PH in the US will lose its affordability. Other less developed countries are still struggling with their PH programs, such as Libya.
Lack of a comprehensive understanding of the complex interaction of different aspects that influence PH in general. The absence of a comprehensive framework to assess and ensure its sustainability have led to unsuccessful PH projects across the world. There is a need to enhance the performance of PH to increase its sustainability in order to improve the living environment of its residents. The overall goal of this research was to develop an applicable framework for PH to ensure its sustainability. This research adapted a sustainability approach based on the Triple Bottom Line +1 (TBL+1) to develop a solution for PH throughout its lifecycle. Sustainability is a new concept in project management that arises from attention to the social aspects of a project and stakeholders’ satisfaction throughout the project lifecycle. The application of sustainable management techniques based on TBL+1 criteria is becoming an imperative approach to achieve project success.
This research answers the following questions: (1) what sustainability indicators can be extracted from the evaluation of the literature concerning the PH programs based on TBL+1?; (2) what sustainability performance indicators can be defined from the residents’ perspectives based on TBL+1?; (3) how can sustainable public housing (SPH) be achieved through an integrated framework, and what is the process of applying such a framework?
The research provides potential leading indicators for SPH based on the TBL+1 aspect by evaluating PH programs in the USA and Libya. Explores the main opportunities to look forward and challenges to face in order for PH to be more sustainable. It also defines the key performance sustainability indicators (KPSIs) related to TBL+1 from residents’ perspectives based on the post-occupancy evaluation (POE) across various groups at three projects: two are in the USA (Camas Common, Corvallis, OR, and Oregon State University Family Housing, Corvallis, OR) and one in Tripoli, Libya (Hay Al-Andalus). Finally, an integrated conceptual framework for SPH was developed, and a project sustainable performance checklist criterion for project stages was introduced in order to evaluate and achieve a SPH.
The integrated framework covers six project stages; project scope, planning, design, construction, occupancy, and demolition includes measurable criteria for each project stage to ensure its sustainability while the project is evolving. The framework and project sustainable performance checklist criterion are a start toward developing an integrated management plan for SPH that housing authorities can incorporate in their local sustainability approach toward a more sustainable built environment.