Influence of water hardness on gill accumulation and acute toxicity of aluminum in rainbow trout Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/4t64gq50x

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  • Rainbow trout were exposed to aluminum at pH 7.25 and 8.25 and four hardnesses (10, 30, 80, and 120 ppm CaCO₃) for 96 hours in a continuous-flow system and mortality and aluminum accumulation in the gills were determined. Temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured daily for each treatment. Dissolved and total aluminum concentrations and hardness were determined following exposure periods of 48 and 96 hours. Aluminum was most toxic at pH 8.25, and was more toxic at lower than at higher hardnesses. Water hardness provided a significant protective effect against aluminum-induced mortality (p < 0.05), and there were no significant effects for water hardness on gill accumulation at either of pH. At pH 7.25 no mortalities occurred under any conditions. At pH 8.25, the accumulation of aluminum in gill tissues was higher than for pH 7.25 following exposure for 96 hours. In addition, aluminum concentration and exposure time had a significantly cumulative effect on fish mortality (p < 0.05). Possible mechanisms for aluminum toxicity and the accumulation of aluminum in the gills of rainbow trout were attributed to the forms and solubilities of aluminum species at different pH values. Competition between Ca²⁺ and aluminum for binding sites on the gills likely influenced aluminum toxic action.
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