Swelling of alkylammonium, montmorillonites Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/4x51hn48b

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  • Adsorption on a series of primary n-alkylammonium bentonites was studied by simultaneous gravimetric determination of the adsorption isotherm and X-ray diffraction measurement of the c-spacing. All adsorbates gave typical Type II isotherms. BET plots were linear in the region P/P[subscript o] = 0.10 - 0.35 and v[subscript m] values were calculated. X-ray diffraction of the dry clay showed that the amine chains lay flat on the clay surface in two layers. Polar adsorbates, such as water, and nonpolar adsorbates, as n-heptane, did not cause any change in the c-spacing. However alcohols, adsorbates with both polar and nonpolar characteristics, caused a separation of the clay platelets to a distance corresponding to the calculated length of the amine ion, indicating that alcohol adsorption caused a rearrangement of the amine ions from their original prone position to an extended upright orientation. It was postulated that two adsorption processes were involved in the expansion, adsorption of the polar portion of the alcohol molecule on the oxygen surface of the clay platelet, possibly by hydrogen bond formation, and van der Waals bonding between the nonpolar part of the alcohol molecule and the amine chain. Adsorption of several other polar organic compounds was also satisfactorily explained. The effects of adsorbing polar and nonpolar compounds together was investigated and it was found that this also caused an expansion of the clay platelets.
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