Factors influencing diet composition of beef cattle grazing mixed conifer mountain riparian areas Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/5138jh53j

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  • Two trials were conducted to evaluate changes in the quantity, quality, and moisture of available forage in the pasture, and shrub utilization by cattle during a 30-d late summer grazing period (Trial 1) and the effect of cow age (experience) on grazing distribution and diet composition (Trial 2) in mountain riparian areas. In the trial 1, a pasture (44.7 ha) in the Catherine Creek site at OSU’s Hall Ranch in northeast of Oregon was grazed with 30 yearlings and 30 mature cow/calf pairs from early August to early September in 2001, and from late July to late August in 2002. Sampling dates were d 0, d 10, d 20, and d 30 of the grazing period. The forage availability before grazing was 1058 kg/ha and declined to 323 kg/ha at the end of the grazing period (P<0.10). Grasses dominated the pasture, followed by forbs, grasslikes, and shrubs. Kentucky bluegrass was the most prevalent forage species followed by timothy, sedges, and common snowberry. The highest percent disappearances of forage species was (83.7-92.7%) observed with quackgrass, western fescue, California brome, redtop, and heartleaf arnica, though their initial contributions to the available forage were less than 5%. High levels of shrub utilization were observed from d 20 through the end of the grazing period (45% for willow and 59% for alder). Forbs and shrubs did not vary in moisture content between the 10 d intervals and across the years averaging 59% and 61%, respectively (P>0.10). In contrast, the moisture content of grasses were over 50% at the beginning of the grazing period but declined dramatically to 34% from d 10 to d 20. Likewise, forbs and shrubs were higher (P<0.05) than grasses in CP (11, 14, and 6%, respectively) and IVDMD (58, 49, and 42% respectively). In summary, our results suggest that cattle grazing late summer riparian pastures will switch to intensive shrub utilization when grasses decline in quality and quantity, and forbs decline in quantity. In the trial 2, thirty first calf heifers, and thirty mature cows were randomly assigned to four pastures (15 head per pasture, average 21.5 ha) in the Milk Creek site of Hall Ranch from late July to early September of 2000 and 2001. Botanical composition of diets was determined by analyzing the feces from 10 animals (5 per pasture) in each treatment during the fourth week of the trial using the microhistological procedure. Correction factors were calculated for the 22 major plant species. First calf heifers had higher portions of grasses (75% versus 71%; P<0.05), but lower portions of shrubs and trees (9% versus 13%; P<0.10) as compared to mature cow diets, respectively. On an individual species basis, ponderosa pine consumption was a major contributor with mature cows consuming greater quantities (P<0.10) than first calf heifers. In summary, mature cows seem to have selected diet less in the amount of grasses and more in the amount of shrubs and trees as compared to younger cows.
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