Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys Taint in Wine : Impact on Wine Sensory, Effect of Wine-processing and Management Techniques Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/5138jj31q

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  • Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), (Halyomorpha halys, Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive species that damages numerous agricultural crops including grapes. Related damage include lower berry weight with increased exposure and cracked berries as a result of BMSB feeding activity. The insect is currently detected in 43 US states including Oregon, Washington, California, and New York. The grape and wine industries in these areas hold significant economic value. BMSB damage has already resulted in major economic loss in the agricultural industry. Current data indicates that the infestation is spreading to new regions and its population density is increasing in regions where it has been detected. Surveys show BMSB in vineyards of Oregon, Virginia and New York where BMSB can damage grapes, lowering their yield and quality. When harvested with grape clusters, BMSB can introduce volatile compounds, trans-2-decenal and tridecane, into wine. Prior work has shown that the presence of these compounds alters wine sensory. In this thesis, the focus is on analyzing BMSB’s impact on wine quality and consumer preference. Additionally, this work determines the action threshold (AT) for BMSB in the vineyard, which is likely to prove important to the grape and wine industry in designing control limits and maintaining wine quality. The first contribution of this work establishes the sensory detection threshold (DT) and consumer rejection thresholds (CRT) for trans-2-decenal in red wine. Trans-2-decenal is one of the main aroma compounds in BMSB taint, having green, cilantro-like aroma characteristics that is undesirable in wine. Results conclusively show that trans-2-decenal in wine has a negative effect on its quality. In Pinot noir, consumers were able to perceive trans-2-decenal at 1.92 µg/L (DT). Consumer preference for Pinot noir and Merlot containing trans-2-decenal decreased significantly above the concentration of 4.8 µg/L (CRT). Pinot noir containing trans-2-decenal above CRT was described as green, herbal, musty and less fruity by wine professionals. Based on such findings, the use of CRT is recommended when establishing consumer tolerance levels of trans-2-decenal in wine. The second contribution relates BMSB presence in vineyard with sensory threshold of trans-2-decenal in the finished wine. Pinot noir, Merlot and Pinot gris were produced using different densities of BMSB in grape clusters. The results of this study indicate BMSB density of three per cluster can result in Pinot noir containing trans-2-decenal at its DT and below its CRT. This density can be used as AT for BMSB in the vineyard since wines made from grapes contaminated at or greater than 3 BMSB per cluster are likely to experience low preference by wine consumers. The same BMSB density can be used to devise control measures for Merlot since trans-2-decenal CRT was found to be similar for both Pinot noir and Merlot. Pinot gris was found to be free of trans-2-decenal even at BMSB density of 1 per cluster. Therefore, we believe that BMSB may not be a concern for white wines. The third contribution provides methods to reduce BMSB taint in finished wine. This can be done by modifying the winemaking process or by applying corrective measures in the wine. During winemaking, destemming and pressing were identified to be the steps responsible for increasing BMSB taint levels in wine whereas alcoholic fermentation decreases taint levels. Consequently, finished white wine was found to be free of trans-2-decenal since fermentation occurs after pressing. However, trans-2-decenal was present in finished red wine since pressing occurs after fermentation. Taint levels in finished red wine are also affected by different pressing variants (free run versus press fraction, bladder press versus basket press), with press fraction and bladder press introducing more BMSB taint compared to free run and basket press. This information will allow winemakers to adjust processing steps in order to minimize BMSB taint levels in red wines. Further reduction in taint levels was shown to be possible through the use of reverse osmosis filtration. Alternatively, oak addition can be used to mask the sensory attributes of trans-2-decenal at the risk of introducing spicy notes into wine. None of the other common fining agents tested were found to be effective against trans-2-decenal. Taken together, this thesis contributes a number of novel insights into the impact of BMSB on red and white wine. By relating consumer thresholds and descriptive analysis with chemical and wine processing, we are able to establish control densities for the pest in the vineyard, identify key processing steps and post-fermentation treatments to reduce BMSB taint. The information contained in this thesis is likely to prove valuable to the wine industry in its struggle against BMSB.
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