Development of analytical methodology for verification of authenticity of apple juice Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/5712m942h

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  • Apples growing in New Zealand, Argentina, Mexico, Michigan and Washington were used to provide the compositional data and to develop the analytical procedures for the use in verification of authenticity of apple juices. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) techniques were applied for glucose, fructose, sucrose, sorbitol, malic, citric, quinic, shikimic, fumaric, chlorogenic acid, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). L-malic acid was determined by an enzymic method. Sep-Pak C18 cartridge, anion exchange resin and millipore filter were used for sample preparation of HPLC. Influence of postharvest storage on sucrose and sorbitol content was observed but it had no effect on the glucose/fructose ratios. Quinic was the next most abundant acid in all the apple varieties examined. Paired t-test showed good agreement (p<0.01) between HPLC and enzymic determination for malic acid. Significantly high variability in chlorogenic acid content limits its utility. The influence of processing procedures on the phenolic compound was observed by comparison with commercial, self-pressed and gelatin treated apple juices. All apple juices showed two characteristic UV absorption maxima at around 280nm and 320nm, the ratio of the two maxima being relatively constant. First, second derivative spectra and fluorescence excitation and emission maxima were measured. As the order of derivative increased, the spectra became more complex and the resolution was enhanced. For the stable carbon isotope ratio analysis, juice, pulp, seeds and sugars, acids, and phenolics were fractionated using ion exchange resins and polyclar AT. Mass spectrometric measurements of ¹³C/ ¹²C ratio from whole juices showed low variability as compared to other fractions. Organic acids showed more negative values than the sugars. Phenolic fraction was most enriched in ¹²C when compared to the juice by as much as 4.6 ppt. The evidence suggests that postharvest storage and processing conditions played an important role in the variability of apple juice components. There are no marked differences in del ¹³C values with regard to apple variety or geographic origins.
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