Food, energy, and nutrient content of food pyramid choice menus, as offered to and as eaten by third graders Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/5d86p226n

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  • This was an observational study of the food and nutrient contribution of lunches in the Food Pyramid Choices Menu system as offered to and eaten by 93 third graders participating from two schools in the Reynolds school district in Oregon. In response to current public health concerns in the U.S. and the emphasis on diets of moderation rather than simply nutritional adequacy, this study focused on the total and saturated fat content of the lunches offered to and eaten by third graders. In the Food Pyramid Choices Menu system, children are allowed to select their own lunches from a variety of entrees, milk, fruits, vegetables, and grain products. The meals as offered to the children were calculated as the mean amount of each food offered to each student in the school. Nutrient analysis for the average lunches as offered was done with Nutrikids (Lunchbyte Systems, Inc.) nutrient analysis software. One week of lunches were analyzed and averaged over the week. The meals as eaten were determined for each child by measuring the foods selected by each child, and subtracting the amount that was leftover by that child. The nutrient analysis for each child's lunches, as eaten, was averaged over the number of days that each child ate lunches while participating in the study. The nutrient content of lunches was analyzed using ESHA's Food Processor. Each student's data for each day was averaged over the week and then with data from all the students participating to arrive at the mean daily food and nutrient intakes. The lunches as offered and as eaten had total fat contents of 33% and 35% of total energy, respectively. The lunches as offered and as eaten both had saturated fat contents of 13% of total energy. It was evident that the third graders ate lunches that, on average, contained a higher proportion of energy from total fat than did the lunches as offered. The lunches as offered contained on average 40.5 mg of vitamin C and 434 RE of vitamin A. The lunches as eaten contained on average 22 mg of vitamin C and 288RE of vitamin A. Though the lunches as eaten were lower in these vitamins than the lunches as offered, the amounts of vitamin C and A eaten were still significantly greater than the National School Lunch Program standards for vitamins C and A in school lunches of 15mg and 224RE, respectively. The mean nutrients analyzed in the lunches as eaten were significantly less than the mean nutrients that were analyzed in the lunches as selected, including: energy, carbohydrates, protein, total fat, saturated fat, protein, total and saturated fat as a percentage of total energy, cholesterol, fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, fiber, calcium, iron, sodium.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-02-10T22:22:03Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 LONGRUSSELL1998.pdf: 894777 bytes, checksum: 0a65ac343b3e239c001255b45a9e68bf (MD5)
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