|Abstract or Summary
- The majority of the world's breeding population of northern fur seals
(Callorhinus ursinus) is found on the Pribilof Islands (St. Paul and St. George) in the Bering Sea, Alaska. Pup production on these islands experienced an irregular but overall decline since the early 1970's. Between 1998 and 2010, pup production declined precipitously at an annual rate of 4.9% on the Pribilof Islands, and 5.5% on St. Paul Island. Specific reasons for this decline remain unknown, and contemporary estimates for many vital rate parameters including reproductive rates are unavailable.
This study determined a contemporary estimate of natality and fertility rates, as well as reproductive timing on the Polovina Cliffs rookery of St. Paul Island during the 2008 (30 June-31 August) and 2009 (1 July-25 August) breeding seasons. Natality rate (defined as the number of pups born divided by the number of reproductively mature females) was determined from visual observations of parturition or associated maternal behavior in 208 and 217 individually marked females (via flipper tags) in 2008 and 2009, respectively.
Data yielded observed natality estimates of 0.79 in 2008 and 0.88 in 2009.
The fertility rate (defined as the number of pups born divided by the total number of females present, irrespective of reproductive maturity/age) was determined for the 2008 breeding season only. This ratio of total pup to female counts was derived from adjusted daily cross-sectional counts conducted through the breeding season. Maximum pup and female counts were derived as asymptotes of sigmoid growth models fitted to corrected daily counts. Live pup counts were corrected for mortalities by estimates of cumulative pup mortalities.
Daily counts of females present in the rookery were corrected for reduced detection probabilities resulting from increased maternal foraging trip durations through the season, typical of attendance patterns associated with colonial, income breeders. Daily detection probabilities for individually marked females were generated from Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population models using maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) in Program MARK. Multiple a priori models accounting for the effects of possible covariates on detection probabilities were evaluated in an information-theoretic approach using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and AICc model weights. Data yielded a minimum fertility rate estimate of 0.60 in 2008. Detection probabilities derived from the top CJS model for dual flipper-tagged females only were used to adjust the daily cross-section counts of all (marked and unmarked) females. Therefore, the actual fertility rate is probably higher than the estimate presented here, which should be regarded as the lowest likely value for 2008. However, AICc model weights also demonstrated the absence of density effects on detection probability estimates. This supports the applicability of marked female-based detection probabilities for correcting cross-sectional counts of all females and further suggests that the actual fertility estimate likely does not differ much from the presented estimate.
Median dates of birth were calculated as the date closest to 50% of modeled corrected pup count asymptotes, yielding median dates of 17 July in 2008 and 15 July in 2009. Pregnant females are highly consistent in their arrival dates, with parturition occurring approximately 1 day after arrival. Median observed dates of arrival from individually marked females resulted in dates of 16 July in 2008 and 15 July in 2009. These dates occurred 5 to 13 days later than historic reports from 1951 through 1995. With median arrival dates 1 day prior to parturition, the observed match between birth dates derived from pup counts and from observed arrival dates of marked females supports the finding of a contemporary delay in the timing of parturition. Median arrival derived as the date closest to 50% of the asymptote from corrected and modeled female counts yielded 13 July in 2008. This earlier data is likely an effect of the inclusion of immature and nulli-parous females. In a subset of 62 females with pregnancy confirmed through a trans-rectal ultrasonography procedure in November 2007 and 29 females in 2008, the return rate for the following reproductive season was 0.92 and 0.76, respectively. In 2008, the return and natality rate was measured by radiotelemetry data, detected from females outfitted with VHF-radio transmitter. In 2009 both rates were determined by observational data. Observed natality rates for returned females of a known pregnancy status were 0.95 in 2008 and 0.96 in 2009.
Radiotelemetry data from 76 females was analyzed for early maternal attendance patterns (duration and ratio of presences and absences) in 2008. The mean date of detected return was 18 July. The mean duration of the perinatal period was 7.5 days (+/- 1.3 SD). Excluding the perinatal period, the mean duration of presence on shore for the first five visits was 1.47 days (+/- 0.21 SD). The mean duration of absence at sea for the first five trips was 7.07 days (+/- 0.42 SD).
Results presented from this study do not provide any direct evidence of a contemporary reduction in natality or fertility rates in northern fur seals. Since observed rates were comparably high and consistent between 2008 and 2009, it is unlikely that reduced natality rates are contributing to the current population trajectory. Attendance patterns do not provide any evidence of increased maternal foraging effort or secondarily, reduced prey availability. Interestingly, median pupping dates were found to occur significantly later than historical estimates. Potential reasons for this shift could be an increase in younger females within the reproductive female population at this rookery, or a shift in the timing of ocean climate conditions and peak prey availability during the breeding season.