Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Flavors associated with the use of Cheddar cheese whey powder in ice cream mix Public Deposited

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  • Flavor problems associated with the use of cheddar cheese whey in the formulation of ice cream and other food products were investigated. During spray drying of whey, which transforms bulky liquid whey into an easily transportable and storable powder, various degrees of off-flavor development may occur depending on the care with which the processing is carried out. Flavor problems present in the dry whey, which usually take the form of heated, stale, or sometimes burned notes, may then manifest themselves in mildly flavored frozen dessert products in which the powder is incorporated. Additional heating given such a finished frozen dessert during pasteurization may also contribute to the whey related off-flavors present by continuing heat induced flavor reactions (mainly Malliard non-enzymic browning and Strecker degradation reactions) initiated in the original processing of the whey powder. An ice cream mix model system was used to study the effects of varying whey quality, whey quantity, and heat processing load on ice cream flavor profile. The mix consisted of 27 samples, three parameters (whey quality, whey quantity, and heat processing load) using three levels of intensity within each parameter. There were three control samples containing no whey. Whey "fingerprint" compounds were identified by headspace GLC/MS analysis of a poor quality whey powder which was later used with two other better quality wheys in the formulation of the model system. Comparison of the identified and some unidentified compound peaks in the "fingerprint" portion of the whey chromatogram to peaks present in the chromatograms obtained from model system analysis provided qualitative correlation. Subsequent quantitation of "fingerprint" compounds in the model system revealed data trends indicating that whey quality and product processing conditions may adversely effect the flavor profile of a frozen dessert product containing whey powder. The quantity of whey added (at least up to the level of substitution used in this work: 25%) did not set trends indicating adverse product effect with increased concentration. These numerical trends were established by using relative quantitation of the whey "fingerprint" or "indicator" compounds to establish a peak area total for each model system member. When grouped by model parameter, trends in the peak area data were elucidated. The conclusions reached from the data presented in this work are that whey flavors do carry through from powder to ice cream mix, are detectable, and may effect flavor profile of the ice cream. Also it became obvious that the flavor quality of the ingredient whey and careful selection of heat load for pasteurization of the ice cream mix are of primary importance in maintaining excellent flavor quality in frozen desserts employing whey to reduce manufacturing costs. Sensory evaluation of the model system members was unable to establish direct off-flavor correlation with increased volatile compound concentration.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-01-27T21:28:05Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 ANDREWSMATTHEW1978.pdf: 828069 bytes, checksum: 3fc743a1380f15b724f302e3383a1e80 (MD5)
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