Heats of immersion and swelling of quaternary ammonium complexes of montmorillonites Public Deposited

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  • Heats of immersion were obtained for four different organophilic clay complexes in a series of normal alcohol-heptane mixtures with alcohols of increasing chain length. The immersion calorimeter employed was the Dewar type with a sensitivity of approximately 5 x 10⁻⁵°C. Gel volumes were determined for two of the clay complexes in a series of normal alcohol-heptane mixtures corresponding to those used in obtaining the above heats of immersion. In addition, immersional heats were obtained for these same two clays in a series of acetone-heptane mixtures with concentrations ranging from zero to ten weight percent acetone. Gel volumes in acetone-heptane mixtures were also determined for all four clay complexes in the zero to ten weight percent acetone range. Observed trends of decreasing heats of immersion and gel volumes with increasing alcohol chain length were explained on the basis of a combination of the various energy terms involved in the immersion process. Increasing heats of immersion and gel volumes, with increasing acetone concentration were also noted. Differences in the heats of immersion and gel volumes exhibited by the various clays were correlated with differences in the exchanged cationic species and with variations in the forces of cohesion between the primary clay particles.
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