|Abstract or Summary
- Uses of travel time and mode of transportation in selected two-parent,
two-child Oregon households was researched in this study.
The relationship between a number of demographic characteristics
and amounts of travel time as well as mode of transportation was
The study used the Oregon data from the Northeast Regional
Research Project, NE-113, "An Interstate Urban/Rural Comparison
of Families' Time Use. " A sample of 210 families divided into 5
groups by age of the youngest child was selected. The sample consisted
of 105 rural Linn and Benton County families and 105 urban
Portland families with a 59% completion rate and 41% refusal rate
for the rural portion. Seventy-three percent of the urban portion
had a completion rate of 41% and a 59% refusal rate. The mean age
of the homemakers and their spouses was approximately 32 and 35
years, respectively. One hundred and forty-four homemakers (69%)
were not employed outside the household while two hundred and two
spouses (96%) reported employment outside the household.
Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and time charts.
Families recorded the time use in specified activities of members
over the age of six for two days, with the first day being charted by
recall and the second by record.
In general, the rural households spent a greater amount of total
time on travel, with a weighted mean of 460 minutes per day, than did
the urban households with a weighted mean of 346 minutes per day.
Both urban and rural homemakers spent more time on travel in relation
to household activities than did urban and rural spouses while the
spouses used more time on travel to and from paid work. Social and
recreational travel activity accounted for the greatest proportion of
urban and rural homemaker's travel time. Women in the total
sample used less time for daily travel than did the men. Using a
stepwise regression model, age of the youngest child showed a positive
significant relationship (p < . 05) while age of the spouse showed
a negative significant relationship (p < . 05) to amount of household
travel time used.
A positive significant relationship was also established using an
analysis of variance between age stratum of the youngest child and
amount of household travel time used. There was a significant relationship
(p <. 05) between area of residence and amount of household
travel time used when a t-test was applied, i. e. rural households
are more likely to use greater amounts of travel time than urban
The family car was the most frequently used mode of transportation,
with school bus and company car second and third, respectively.
The city taxi was the least used mode. There was a significant
relationship (p < . 05) between age of youngest child and the major
mode of transportation used by the household when an analysis of variance
was applied, i. e. age had an effect on what type of transportation
was used. However, further statistical investigation was conducted
and it was found that the age of the youngest child had an effect upon
the rate of use within a specified mode of transportation, but there was
no relationship between modes. There was a significant relationship
(p < 05) between area of residence and the major mode of transportation
used by the household when a Chi-square Test of Independence was
applied, i. e. area of residence made a difference in the major mode of
transportation used by the household.
This researcher concluded that there were distinct rural/urban,
male/female, and stage-in-the-family-life-cycle differences in the
travel behavior of the households studied.