Maternal diet and essential fatty acid metabolism in progeny chickens Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/6108vf26h

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  • During the 21 day incubation period, the fertile egg provides nutrients such as fatty acids for energy and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for membrane synthesis to the developing chick. The hypothesis tested in the present study is that the type of PUFA fed to the breeder hen can alter tissue lipid composition and PUFA metabolism in the progeny during growth. The objective of the present study was to test two different sources of PUFA (n-3 or n-6) on: 1) egg production, egg, and chick quality; and 2) changes in tissue PUFA composition and metabolism in progeny during growth. Fertilized eggs (n=240) were collected from Ross breeder hens (n=45) fed one of the three experimental diets containing 3.5% fish (long chain n-3), flax (18:3 n-3), or safflower oil (18:2 n-6). The egg and yolk weight was lowest for eggs from hens fed fish oil (P=0.09, P=0.02). The chick weight on day of hatch was 41.2, 45.3, and 43.3g, for fish, flax, and safflower, respectively (P=0.003). In the second experiment fertilized eggs were collected from Lohman Brown layer hens (n=75) fed a control, high n-3, or low n-3 diet. Chicks were raised up to day 14 on a control diet lacking long-chain n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. Chick tissue samples (gastrointestinal tract, liver, and blood) were collected on day 1, 7, and 14 and were subjected to fatty acid (FA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) analysis. The long-chain n-6 to long chain n-3 ratio was lowest in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and liver from chicks hatched from fish oil fed hens (P<0.001) up to day 14. Interleukin-6 was lowest in liver (P=0.009) and serum on day of hatch, for fish oil chicks. The results from this study show that the diet fed to breeder hens alters progeny tissue PUFA composition and lipid metabolism during early development in avians. The long term effects of maternal diet manipulation on progeny growth and lipid metabolism need to be investigated in detail.
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