Aphid age and in-vector virus concentration as factors influencing pea enation mosaic virus transmission by the pea aphid Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/6395wb156

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  • The relationship between pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) and aging pea aphids was studied. Although this research initially emphasized the relationship between the decline in the rate of PEMV transmission and the 'concentration of PEMV within pea aphids, aphid age was found to be the principle factor influencing transmission. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to assay the concentration of virus within aphid bodies. Aphid age at the time of virus acquisition significantly influenced the maximum rate of transmission attained and the rate of transmission decline by aging aphids. Following a 24-hr virus acquisition treatment, 1-day-old aphids achieved the highest transmission rate (95%) and the slowest decline in their rate of transmission of 4 age groups tested. Eight-day-old aphids had a maximum transmission rate of 50% and a more rapid decline in transmission. Thirteen-day-old aphids had a maximum rate of only 5% while 23-day-old aphids did not transmit at all. The relative feeding rate of aphids 8, 13, 18, and 23 days old was measured indirectly by assaying the virus concentration in aphids immediately following a standard 24-hr virus acquisition treatment. The 18- and 23-day-old aphids fed significantly less than 8- and 13-day-olds. The concentration of PEMV was monitored periodically in both whole and dissected aphids during 16 day test periods following a 24-hr virus acquisition treatment. In the whole insect study, l-day-olds initially acquired A405 = 0.06 or 2.3 ng of PEMV while 8-day-olds acquired A405 = 0.44 or 20 ng of PEMV per aphid. The average concentration of PEMV recorded from individuals in the 1-day-old group remained constant during the 16-day test period while in the 8-day-old group it decreased significantly. When aphids from the 8-day-old group were dissected immediately after completion of the virus acquisition treatment, the virus concentration was found to be higher in the gut than in the body region. The concentration in the gut, however, declined rapidly while in the body it remained constant during the 16-day post-virus acquisition test period. Decline in the virus transmission rates by aging aphids was not explained by the virus concentration within aphids. In fact, transmission of PEMV by individual aphids was independent of the virus concentration within individual aphids. Therefore, decline in the transmission rate is more likely dependent on the physiological realtionship between PEMV and key processes within vectors, such as, entry of virions into the salivary system. These processes may be slowed by vector aging.
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