Comparison of dietary energy density between active women with and without exercise-associated menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/6969z389j

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  • Research shows that Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction (ExMD) ranges from 6-79% of active women, depending on the sport. The primary contributor to ExMD is hypothesized to be low energy availability or relative energy deficiency in sport, due to insufficient energy intake to match exercise energy expenditure. Because many active women are health conscious and select healthy foods, they may select low energy dense foods that inadvertently contribute to lower energy intakes and increased satiety. PURPOSE: To determine if active women with ExMD consume a diet lower in energy density and higher in dietary fiber compared to eumenorrheic active controls. METHODS: Active women with ExMD (n=9, age=24±6y, VO2MAX=49.3±5.5mL/kg/min, body fat=20.7±6.0%) and those with eumenorrhea (n=18, age=27±6y, VO[subscript 2MAX]=53.0±5.2mL/kg/min, body fat=19.0±5.7%) were recruited. Energy density was calculated from 6-7 day weighed food records using two methods: Method 1 included all beverages (e.g. juice, milk, soda, coffee, tea, alcohol, sport drinks) except for water. Method 2 included only food and liquid meal-replacement beverages and excluded all other beverages. Group comparisons for energy density and fiber intakes were done using one-sided unpaired t-tests; one-way ANOVA was used to test remaining variables. RESULTS: There were no group differences in dietary fiber intake (ExMD=11.6±3.1g/1000 kcal/d; EU=12.9±3.3 g/1000kcal/d) (p>0.05) or dietary energy density. Overall, the mean dietary energy density was 10% lower in the ExMD (Method 1: ExMD=1.13±0.17 kcal/g, EU=1.28±0.28 kcal/g; Method 2: ExMD=1.57±0.25 kcal/g, EU=1.75+0.26 kcal/g; adjusted p=0.098); this translates into a 9% decrease in energy intake. Using Method 1, 100% in the ExMD group vs. 67% in the eumenorrheic group consumed a low energy dense diet. Using Method 2, 44% in the ExMD group vs. 11% in the eumenorrheic group consumed a low energy dense diet. Energy (ExMD=2237±378 kcal/d; EU=2456±470 kcal/d) and macronutrient intakes (g/kg and % of energy) did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the energy density method used, there were no differences in energy density between groups. Overall both groups consumed diets classified as either low or moderately low in energy density, with a greater percentage of ExMD athletes consuming a low energy dense diet. While not significant, energy density was 10% lower in ExMD active women, which resulted in a similar 9% decrease in energy intake. This relationship between energy density and energy intake is consistent with that observed in the research literature. Further research needs to examine the interaction of dietary energy density and exercise on appetite and energy intake in active women, especially those in lean-build sports.
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