Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

Evaporation of an ammonia chloride stream to produce aqueous ammonia and 40 wt % calcium chloride

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  • Production of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and aqueous ammonia (NH4 +) from the ammonia chloride (NH4Cl) stream in the Solvay process was studied using an Ammonia Recovery Tower to produce 29 wt % aqueous ammonia and 40 wt % CaCl2 from the process feed stream or the tower bottoms stream. OLI, a thermodynamic equilibrium process simulator, modeled four different distillation and evaporation configurations. Using a feed rate of 2300 kg/hr of 5.8 wt % NH4Cl, each configuration produced 1360 kg/hr of 30 wt % aqueous ammonia and 770 kg/hr to 4130 kg/hr of 40 wt % CaCl2. A bench scale evaporator with 1.0 L of working volume was used to produce 40 wt % CaCl2 solutions. A steady state production of 40 wt % CaCl2 was achieved in the laboratory using model feed solutions, Ammonia Tower process feed and processed Ammonia Tower bottoms. In general, there was a close agreement between the simulation and the experimental results. In both the experimental trials and modeling predictions, the 40 wt % CaCl2 solution that used the processed Ammonia Tower bottoms as the evaporator feed solution, contained a lower concentration of ammonia than the 40 wt % CaCl2 solutions that used the Ammonia Tower feed.
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