Development and evaluation of essential aminl acid mixtures in broiler and layer rations formulated manually or by linear programming Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/73666810t

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  • Studies have been conducted with broilers and layers fed manually formulated or linear programmed rations. Experiments with broilers have involved the following: 1) determining the lysine requirement with and without cottonseed meal in the ration, 2) formulating by linear programming rations made up from different reported amino acid mixtures and 3) developing amino acid mixtures and formulating rations from these specifications using linear programming. The layer studies have involved: 1) developing rations using predicted rates of egg production based on the methionine need for egg production and 2) formulating by linear programming rations using various amino acid mixtures. In studying the lysine requirement of chicks, microbiological assays and chick experiments were used. Microbiological assays showed that the lysine content of cottonseed meal and the other selected feedstuffs exceeded the values reported in the literature. Results obtained from chick experiments indicated that both manually formulated and linear programmed rations meeting the reported lysine requirement of 1 percent resulted in depressed growth. The addition of lysine to these rations exhibited a significant growth response. It was concluded that the lysine requirement of chicks under conditions of these experiments was 1.1 percent for rations containing calculated protein levels of 18.4 and 21.1 percent. The results comparing linear programmed rations formulated from different amino acid mixtures reported in the literature showed that the National Research Council's (NRC) amino acid mixture as well as the Dobson-Anderson mixture was inadequate from the standpoint of supporting maximum growth. The Klain mixture and the NRC mixture increased by 50 percent appeared capable of supporting optimum growth, while the Arscott-Brown mixture and the NRC mixture increased by 25 percent were considered optimum mixtures from an economic point of view. Experiments comparing developed amino acid mixtures and formulating rations using these specifications by linear programming indicated that the egg albumin-NRC mixture increased by 20 percent was capable of supporting optimum growth over the control mixture and the egg albumin-NRC mixture. There was no significant difference in body weights when the optimum mixture and the egg white-NRC mixture were compared. It was concluded that the egg albumin-NRC mixture increased by 20 percent more nearly meets the chick's amino acid needs than the NRC mixture. Layer studies involving manually formulated rations and using predicted rates of egg production based on the methionine need showed that there was no correlation between the predicted egg production rates and the rates of egg production obtained. The addition of methionine to these rations failed to improve rate of egg production. Explanations for these results were discussed. Layers fed linear programmed laying rations formulated from various amino acid mixtures showed no significant difference in rate of egg production between the control mixture versus the NRC mixture with or without upper amino acid restrictions or a ration developed from an amino acid mixture theoretically capable of supporting 100 percent of egg production. It was found that applying an upper limit to the NRC mixture appeared to have some adverse effect on egg production.
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