Precipitation estimation in mountainous terrain using multivariate geostatistics Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/79408168h

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  • Estimates of average annual precipitation (AAP) are-needed for hydrologic modeling at Yucca Mtn., Nevada, site of a proposed, high-level nuclear waste repository. Historical precipitation data and station elevation were obtained for stations in southern Nevada and southeastern California. Elevations for 1,531 additional locations were obtained from topographic maps. The sample direct-variogram for the transformed variable TAAP = ln(AAP) * 1000 was fit with an isotropic, spherical model with a small nugget and a range of 190,000 ft. The sample direct-variogram for elevation was fit with an isotropic model with four nested structures (nugget, Gaussian, spherical, and linear) with ranges between 0 and 270,000 ft. There was a significant (p = 0.05, r = 0.75) linear correlation between TAAP and station elevation. The sample cross-variogram for TAAP and elevation was fit with two nested structures (Gaussian, spherical) with ranges from 55,000 to 355,000 ft. Alternate model structures and parameters were compared using cross-validation. Isohyetal maps for average annual precipitation (AAP) were prepared from estimates obtained by kriging and cokriging using the selected models. Isohyets based on the kriging estimates were very smooth, increasing gradually from the southwest to the northeast. Isohyets based on the cokriging estimates and the spatial correlation between AAP and elevation were more irregular and displayed known orographic effects. Indirect confirmation of the cokriging estimates were obtained by comparing isohyets prepared with the cokriging estimates to the boundaries of more densely vegetated and/or forested zones. Estimates for AAP at the repository site were 145 and 165 mm for kriging and cokriging, respectively. Cokriging reduced estimation variances at the repository site by 55% relative to kriging. The effectiveness of an existing network of stations for measuring AAP is evaluated and recommendations are made for optimal locations for additional stations.
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