Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Breeding, Production, and Morphophysiology Among Cytotypes of Common and Portuguese Cherrylaurel Public Deposited

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  • The common cherrylaurel (Prunus laurocerasus) and Portuguese cherrylaurel (P. lusitanica) are economically important landscape shrubs across the United States. To gain a better understanding of physiology and morphology in these higher level polyploids (P. lusitanica, 2n = 8x; P. laurocerasus, 2n =22x), a variety of breeding experiments were performed. The long-term goal of these experiments was to lay the ground-work for the creation of a sterile, shothole disease resistant cherrylaurel, while maintaining its desirable ornamental features. In attempt to narrow the gap in ploidy level between these two species, the chromosome number of P. lusitanica was doubled using colchicine and oryzalin, and differences in cytotypes were observed. This was performed with the hope of performing interspecific hybridization and introgression of shothole disease resistance in to P. laurocerasus. The most effective method was found to be oryzalin at a rate of 125 μM, and induced polyploids were shorter, had thicker leaves, and larger but fewer stomata. Preliminary research was performed to germinate immature P. lusitanica seed, in vitro, to develop a putative embryo rescue medium for use in this interspecific hybridization. The most significant factor in the media for successful germination was sucrose, with 30 g·L⁻¹ of sucrose media germinating significantly more seed than 60 g·L⁻¹. Also, germination only occurred at 12 weeks after pollination, with no germination at 6 and 9 weeks regardless of cold-stratification. Existing chromosome doubled cytotypes of P. laurocerasus were compared to the standard ploidy cytotype. Differences in vegetative propagation were observed and reported in the Schipkaensis cultivar. Chromosome doubled P. laurocerasus ‘Schipkaensis’ rooted at an equivalent percentage, had equivalently long roots, and had fewer roots per cutting. Deceased number of roots produced no apparent detrimental effects in propagation success. In cytotypes of the Otto Luyken cultivar, numerous morphological and physiological were made. Chromosome double forms were generally shorter, smaller in width and conical volume, and had larger but fewer stomata. The also had increased stomatal conductance and transpiration, with decreased water-use efficiency. Size and biomass observations were used to estimate carbon fixation, and chromosome doubled Otto Luyken cultivars were estimated to fix significantly less carbon.
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  • 2017-08-16 to 2018-02-24

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