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  • In volcanic systems
  • In volcanic systems, magma is generally stored in the shallow crust prior to eruption. The conditions of this storage directly impact whether the magma eventually erupts, or crystallizes within the crust to form a pluton. In this dissertation I present four studies that investigate the storage conditions of a number of volcanic systems and their timescales. A widespread method to quantify the timescales of magmatic processes is diffusion modeling of compositional variations in zoned crystals. Obtaining timescale information from diffusion modeling relies on fitting modeled diffusion profiles to measured compositional gradients. Therefore, the spatial resolution of the geochemical analysis technique used to characterize these gradients has the potential to limit the accuracy and precision of calculated diffusion timescales, especially when the resolution of the individual analyses approaches the width of the observed diffusion gradient. A probabilistic modeling approach is presented to assess the accuracy of short diffusion timescale estimates with respect to the spatial resolution of the geochemical measurement of compositional zoning. We develop a generalized method to quantify these shortest timescales that can be accurately calculated for given spatial resolutions and diffusivity. This provides a simple method to assess the accuracy of short diffusion timescales. Olivine-rich picrites are a relatively common eruptive product of ocean island and flood basalt volcanism. This rock type has a primitive bulk-rock composition similar to mantle-derived melts; however, picrites are olivine-rich. The common interpretation for the formation of picrites is the accumulation of olivine in more evolved, basaltic liquids. Many picrites contain two textural populations of olivine, one with deformation features (kink bands, subgrains or undulose extinction), and one without deformation. Deformation textures in olivine is traditionally thought to form by plastic deformation during storage in a deforming cumulate zone. However, recently it has been proposed that deformation textures could be the result of growth phenomena. We use textural (crystal sizes, deformation textures and minor element zoning patterns) and geochemical analysis (trace element compositions and minor element diffusion) of olivine from the 1959 eruption of Kīlauea Iki to show that these two olivine populations are derived from different sources and that the deformed population experienced longer residence times than the undeformed population. Our results are consistent with the interpretation that olivine is deformed in cumulate zones, and later entrained in unrelated magmas. The conditions of upper crustal magma storage in arc settings are fundamentally important to the evolution and ultimate fate of arc magmas. Current thermal models suggest that accumulation of significant bodies of eruptible magma require either high magma influx and storage at elevated temperatures, or lower flux and storage as low temperature crystal mushes that are later thermally rejuvenated. We use textural (crystal sizes) and geochemical (plagioclase trace elements and trace element diffusion in plagioclase, quartz and sanidine) analyses of samples from several arc systems ranging in eruptive volume from < 1 km³ to > 5,000 km³ to obtain observational evidence for the thermal conditions of arc magma storage. In particular we quantify the maximum amount of time a given crystal could have resided in a mobile magma (< 50% crystals, i.e., below the rheological lockup). This study is split into two parts, the first is focused on the large, caldera-forming eruptions (≥ 10 km³) and the second on the smaller, more typical arc eruptions (≤ 13 km³). Diffusion timescales from 11 caldera-forming eruption reveal three types of magmatic systems: 1) relatively small volume systems (< ~100 km³) that record short residence times (< ~1200 years) at or above the rheological lockup temperature, 2) large volume systems (> ~100 km³) that record long residence times (< 160,000 years) for plagioclase diffusion and short timescales for quartz and sanidine, and 3) large volume systems that record variable to low residence times. This suggests that the smaller systems experience cold storage conditions where rejuvenation is needed to remobilized magma that is locked up as a crystal mush. The longer residence times for the larger systems suggests that thermal conditioning of the crust and or higher magma fluxes allow these magmas to be stored at elevated temperatures longer than the smaller systems. The second part of the study of the storage conditions of arc magmas gives evidence for two different storage conditions. The smaller (<13 km³), more typical arc magmatic systems all record short residence times (10¹-10³ years) at hightemperatures. However these timescales are the result of two different processes. The first is observed in the relatively crystal-poor systems (<20% crystals), where diffusion records the timing of crystal growth after silicic melt extraction from crystal mushes. The second process, recorded in crystal-rich systems (25-50% crystals), suggests that they are stored as relatively cold crystal mushes that must be rapidly remobilized prior to eruption. We conclude that the majority of these systems were stored at low temperatures for much of their lifetimes.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Julie Kurtz(julie.kurtz@oregonstate.edu) on 2017-02-28T19:14:43Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 3 license_rdf: 1232 bytes, checksum: bb87e2fb4674c76d0d2e9ed07fbb9c86 (MD5) BradshawRichardW2017.pdf: 247046440 bytes, checksum: a4af8fa538c6b0b45c2c78461bf5b9ba (MD5) BradshawRichardWSupplementData.xlsx: 8374205 bytes, checksum: 0be81197cdf0eb741abd0abb1263f1c4 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Submitted by Richard Bradshaw (bradshar@oregonstate.edu) on 2017-02-25T01:38:05Z No. of bitstreams: 3 license_rdf: 1232 bytes, checksum: bb87e2fb4674c76d0d2e9ed07fbb9c86 (MD5) BradshawRichardW2017.pdf: 247046440 bytes, checksum: a4af8fa538c6b0b45c2c78461bf5b9ba (MD5) BradshawRichardWSupplementData.xlsx: 8374205 bytes, checksum: 0be81197cdf0eb741abd0abb1263f1c4 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Laura Wilson(laura.wilson@oregonstate.edu) on 2017-03-02T18:59:26Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 3 license_rdf: 1232 bytes, checksum: bb87e2fb4674c76d0d2e9ed07fbb9c86 (MD5) BradshawRichardW2017.pdf: 247046440 bytes, checksum: a4af8fa538c6b0b45c2c78461bf5b9ba (MD5) BradshawRichardWSupplementData.xlsx: 8374205 bytes, checksum: 0be81197cdf0eb741abd0abb1263f1c4 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2017-03-02T18:59:26Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 3 license_rdf: 1232 bytes, checksum: bb87e2fb4674c76d0d2e9ed07fbb9c86 (MD5) BradshawRichardW2017.pdf: 247046440 bytes, checksum: a4af8fa538c6b0b45c2c78461bf5b9ba (MD5) BradshawRichardWSupplementData.xlsx: 8374205 bytes, checksum: 0be81197cdf0eb741abd0abb1263f1c4 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2017-02-14

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