Addressing sodium reduction and pathogen internalization in non-intact whole muscle beef : evaluation of dehydrated collagen and hydrostatic pressure as impact technologies Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/7s75df531

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  • These studies focused on maximizing the nutrition and safety of raw whole muscle beef while minimizing quality and shelf-life alteration. The first study used response surface methodology to predict fluid loss from injected beef strip loins and steaks as influenced by levels of salt and sodium phosphates (SP) in the injection brine. Also, a beef-sourced dehydrated beef protein (DBP) water binding ingredient was evaluated. Paired U.S. select beef strip loins were quartered before being injected to 110% of initial weight with brines containing various concentrations of salt and SP (CON) or salt, SP and 5% DBP. Steaks were sliced, overwrapped and stored in the dark for 4 d. Purge values ranged from 0.6% to 4.6% for CON and 0.3% to 2.1% for DBP. Fluid losses when accounting for the fluid lost from injection to slicing were as high as 6.8% for CON brines, but only 2.8% for DBP brines. The models on fluid loss generated from the study and the DBP product could help processors achieve acceptable purge while reducing sodium use. The second study sought to determine the viability of DBP as a replacement for SP in beef injection brines. U.S. Select strip loins (n=20) were injected to 110% of their initial weight with a brine containing 3.6% salt and 4.5% sodium phosphate (CON) or 3.6% salt and 5% dehydrated beef protein (DBP). DBP loins had less fluid loss after 30 min. Steaks from both treatments lost similar amounts of fluid during storage. Total fluid loss was lower for DBP injected product. Lipid oxidation (TBARS) products were 0.23 – 0.60 mg/Kg higher for DBP steaks, but still within acceptable limits (<1.0 mg/Kg). DBP steaks were slightly less red than CON steaks according to instrumental measurements. Sensory panel evaluation, however, indicated no differences in redness. DBP steaks were less tender according to trained sensory panel. Results indicated the DBP to be effective in increasing brine retention and a suitable alternative to phosphates when used in brines injected into beef strip loins. The third study aimed to determine the interactions between salt (NaCl), sodium phosphate (SP) and mild HPP in brine injected beef, as previous studies on comminuted products have shown the action of hydrostatic pressure to increase the effectiveness of salt and phosphates on protein functionality. Beef strip loin segments were injected to 10% over initial weight with solutions containing water and various levels of salt (0, 2 or 4% of solution) and/or SP (0 or 4% of solution). Pieces from the loin sections were exposed to varying pressure levels (0.1, 152 or 303 MPa) and evaluated for selected quality and biochemical characteristics. Use of SP and pressure application increased pH additively. L* values were increased by pressure and decreased by SP. Redness (a*) increased at 303 MPa. Purge increases due to pressure were mitigated by SP. Pressure application at 303 MPa reduced total and sarcoplasmic protein solubility. This study determined there was no interaction between salt or SP and mild HPP. However, results indicate SP may have use in preventing yield loss due to HPP. The final study attempted to use high pressure-low temperature (HPLT) processing to achieve E. coli O157:H7 inactivation in non-intact, whole muscle roasts while maintaining acceptable quality characteristics. Beef semitendinosus was internally inoculated with a four strain E. coli O157:H7 cocktail and frozen at -30 °C, then subjected to 550 MPa for 4 min (HPLT). Compared to frozen, untreated control (F), HPLT reduced microbial population by 1.7 log colony forming unit (CFU)/g on selective media (Cefixime-Tellurite Sorbitol MacConkey agar) and 1.4 log on non- selective media (Trypticase soy agar). High pressure without freezing (550 MPa/4 min/3 °C) increased pH and lightness while decreasing redness, cook yield, tenderness, and protein solubility. High pressure low temperature, aside from a 4% decrease in cook yield, had no significant effects on quality relative to the control. High pressure low temperature is an effective way to subject red meat to high pressures without compromising quality. However, its diminished effect on internalized E. coli limits its effectiveness as a food safety intervention.
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