Energy and nutrient intake, and body composition of elderly women with different ages and levels of physical activity Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/7s75df86k

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  • The US population over the age of 65 years is growing rapidly, with elderly women outnumbering men by 50 percent. Studies show that aging is often accompanied by reduced energy intake, inadequate nutrition, and the loss of lean body mass with a subsequent increase in body fat, as well as the tendency towards inactivity. An increased level of physical activity elevates energy needs, which can lead to increased energy and nutrient intake, and has been shown to aid in the maintenance of lean body mass and the reduction of body fat. Positive health outcomes for seniors depends partly on a clearer understanding of the interrelationships between physical activity, diet, and body composition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether higher overall levels of physical activity among elderly women, were related to higher energy intake, nutrient adequacy, and less body fat, and to what extent age affected these associations. Sixty-three elderly women (aged 65-98 years) volunteers completed a three part study spanning 14 weeks. Mean level of physical activity (MLPA) and mean nutrient intakes were estimated using nine self-reported days of records, three predetermined days from each of three recording periods. MLPA was determined from self-reported hours spent in five physical activity categories (resting, very light, light, moderate, and heavy), multiplied by corresponding weighted factors of intensity (1.0, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.0, respectively). Nutrient analyses for seven vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12) and three minerals (calcium, iron, and zinc) were done using the Food Processor II computer software. A mean adequacy ratio (MAR) was calculated for each subject as the average percent of the RDA for intakes of all 10 nutrients. Body composition assessment included triplicate measures of: height and weight from which body mass index (BMI) was determined; waist-to-hip ratio (WHR); and an estimation of percent body fat (PBF) from the sum of four skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, suprailiac). It was determined that MLPA was not directly related to energy intake, nutrient adequacy, or the three body composition parameters. However, the correlation coefficients between MLPA and energy intake, mean adequacy ratio, and percent RDA for 8 of the 10 nutrients were positive, and the correlation coefficients between MLPA and all three body fatness measures were negative, as was expected. The small coefficient of variability of MLPA limited its discriminating power in determining associations with energy intake, nutrient adequacy, and body composition. Backward stepwise regression models were conducted to distinguish potential confounding effects of age, education, and MLPA on the variables kcal/day, kcal/kg/day, MAR, BMI, WHR, and PBF. Age was found to account for the largest portion of the variations, and was greater than the contribution of MLPA for all of these variables, except in the case of kcal/kg/day. When the subjects were divided into young-old (65-74 yr) and old-old (75-98 yr) subgroups, the younger compared to the older women were found to be more active as measured by MLPA (p=.02), explained by their engaging in more light activities of daily living (p=.04). The young-old compared to the old-old women consumed more kcalories/day (p=.01), and had a higher MAR score (p=.00). The nutrient densities of the two groups' diets were not significantly different. The younger women had slightly lower BMI, WHR, and PBF values. This study revealed age, rather than MLPA, was a better predictor of some parameters of diet adequacy and body fatness among this sample of elderly women. In addition, consistently higher levels of physical activity and greater dietary adequacy and was found among the younger compared to the older portions of this sample of senior women, suggesting that nutrition intervention programs for the elderly should encourage daily activeness as a strategy to maintain or improve dietary adequacy with advancing age.
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  • File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome) using Scamax Scan+ V.1.0.32.10766 on a Scanmax 412CD by InoTec in PDF format. LuraDocument PDF Compressor V.5.8.71.50 used for pdf compression and textual OCR.
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  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2012-01-26T18:07:47Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 BELLELIZABETH1993.pdf: 2143521 bytes, checksum: ca84d9e559340d4c0b4e88c0e69fd86a (MD5) Previous issue date: 1993-03-17
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