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Evaluation of a measurement system for evidence-based physical education

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  • The methods to educate students with disabilities in physical education contexts vary greatly due to their unique characteristics and special needs, requiring different teaching methods on an individual basis. In order to improve educational outcomes for students with disabilities in physical education settings, teachers should employ evidence-based practice (EBP). However, EBP has not been well implemented in physical education. Although the first step of implementing EBP is identifying teachers' readiness and current stages for change, effective ways to measure teachers' intentions for changing their teaching behaviors have not been developed yet. The main purpose of this study was to develop a scale for evidence-based physical education and to evaluate psychometric properties of the new scale. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of different survey methods to examine the intention for changing teaching behavior. A measurement system was developed on the basis of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and psychometric properties were examined. Results from the item analyses showed that only two out of 58 items had poor discrimination functions and those two items were deleted. All 58 items revealed good or very good internal consistencies ranging from .87 to .90. Confirmatory factor analyses showed appropriate factor loading estimates and squared multiple correlations. Goodness of fit indices provided partial supports on three structural equation models. However there were no significant relationships between stages of change and the three components of the TTM. Response rate, response completeness, response time, and administration costs between paper- and internet-based surveys were compared to identify an effective survey method in a physical education setting. The internet-based survey mode showed a higher response rate than the mail-based mode. Also, it revealed that the internet-based survey was more cost and time efficient than the traditional paper and pencil-based survey. In terms of response completeness, however, the internet-based mode had more missing values than the mail-based mode. In conclusion, a newly developed measurement system showed an adequate level of validity evidence with good internal consistencies and it was revealed that the internet-based survey mode was a more effective survey method than the mail-based survey to examine readiness of implementing evidence-based physical education. Future studies should examine how to change teachers' intentions and/or behaviors with evidence-based physical education in their classes. Also, the future studies should examine the strategies to prevent a missing value of the internet-based survey.
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