- The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not
change has occurred in the scholastic background and academic ability
of students attending the junior high school summer sessions of
the Santa Monica Unified School District, California, between the
years 1956 and 1962.
Applying a Fisher and Yates Table of Randomized Numbers
to the total summer school population in each of the years between
and including 1956 and 1962, a random selection of 250 students from
each year was made. The 1750 students' I.Q. scores, their Iowa
Percentile scores, and their Grade Point Averages in the basic
yearly subject grades comprised the three variables upon which the
statistical analysis was based. Preliminary computations revealed
that the means of the three variables generally (15 times out of 18)
increased over those of the previous year during 1956 through 1962,
and the standard deviation of the various distributions generally remained
To determine whether there was a significant linear trend
during the years under study and, if so, whether any deviations from
that trend were significant, a test of linear regression was applied to
the following null hypotheses:
(1) There is no linear trend exhibited by the mean I.Q.
(2) The relationship of the mean I.Q. scores is not nonlinear.
(3) There is no linear trend exhibited by the mean of the Iowa
(4) The relationship of the mean Iowa Percentile scores is
(5) There is no linear trend exhibited by the mean G.P.A.
(6) The relationship of the mean G.P.A. is not nonlinear.
Since the F-ratio for the linear trend of the mean scores of
the I.Q. (8.99), the Iowa Percentile (5.07), and the G.P.A. (6.95)
were all above the .05 level of probability (3.84), Null Hypotheses
(1), (3), and (5) were rejected. With respect to significant deviations
from this linear trend, the F-ratio indicated that the mean scores for the I.Q. (.13), the Iowa Percentile (.13), and the G.P.A. (.48)
were all below the .05 level of probability (2.21). Therefore, Null
Hypotheses (2), (4), and (6) were accepted.
Among the more important findings from this study are:
1. Both demand for and availability of "enrichment" and "advanced"
courses, as compared to "remedial" courses, increased
during the seven-year period.
2. There was a statistically significant upward linear trend,
without significant deviations, in the mean scores of the I.Q., the
Iowa Percentile, and the G.P.A. during the years 1956 through 1962.
Thus, since the mean scores for each of the three variables were on
a linear trend with a nonzero slope over the designated years; and
since there were no significant deviations from the linear trend;
and further, since inspection of tabulated data revealed a steady, if
unspectacular, upward trend in all variables over the seven-year
period under study, it seems reasonable to conclude that the summer
session student in 1962 exhibited a scholastic background and
an academic ability superior to those of his counterpart in 1956.
Certain implications grow from these findings:
1. To meet the changing needs of learners, the summer
school should periodically re-evaluate its curriculum.
2. In view of the dynamic growth of summer school and the
complexity of its course offerings, more guidance is needed in
assisting students to plan for summer school.
3. Since recent summer school enrollments have increased
by such large numbers, an adequate plan for financing the summer
school program is urgently needed.