Influences of kraft mill effluents on the production of chinook salmon in laboratory stream communities Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/7w62fc18w

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  • A study of the effects of stabilized and unstabilized kraft mill effluents on the production of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in six laboratory streams was conducted at the Pacific Cooperative Water Pollution Laboratories, Oregon State University-from May through August, 1969. Similar salmon biomasses were stocked in each stream. Changes in salmon biomass were measured every 14 days. Streams receiving 1.5 percent by volume of unstabilized waste (3 mg/1 BOD) and 0.75 percent by volume of unstabilized waste (1.5 mg/1 BOD) maintained the highest biomasses of salmon. The stream receiving 7.5 percent by volume of stabilized waste (1.5 mg/1 BOD) maintained a salmon biomass slightly higher than the control streams, and the stream receiving 1.5 percent by volume of stabilized effluent (0.3 mg/1 BOD) produced a salmon biomass about the same as those of the control streams. The growth rates of the salmon in the laboratory streams were directly related to the biomass of their food organisms. The density of invertebrate organisms, however, was not clearly related to the density of organic matter. Organic matter may have provided hiding places for invertebrates and affected their availability to the salmon. Feeding of the invertebrates on bacteria or detritus associated with the effluent could also have obscured relationships between invertebrate and organic matter densities. Acute toxicity bioassays of unstabilized wastes showed these effluents were more toxic in winter and spring than in summer. The more toxic effluent may have had a direct deleterious effect on the growth of salmon during seasons other than summer. Lower levels of toxicity probably minimized any direct effect of this effluent on fish growth during the summer and may have permitted increased invertebrate production. This perhaps explains the higher levels of salmon production obtained during this experiment as compared to those obtained in earlier experiments conducted by others during seasons other than summer.
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