Silicone wristbands are easy-to-wear passive samplers that have been readily adapted into environmental health studies since first reported in 2014. Wristbands can be worn during normal daily activities and sequester a wide range of bioavailable organic chemicals. This dissertation includes a thorough review of silicone wristband technology, as well as two research studies on utilizing wristbands to improve personal chemical exposure assessment. In one study, pregnant women in an urban birth cohort wore wristbands for 48 hours alongside active air monitors and provided a urine sample. We demonstrated for the first time that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in wristbands are significantly correlated with PAH metabolite concentrations in urine, providing evidence that wristbands are a biologically relevant chemical exposure assessment tool. In the largest wristband study to date, we assessed chemical exposure differences and similarities across three continents: Africa, North America, and South America. We analyzed 262 wristband extracts for 1,530 unique chemicals, resulting in 400,860 chemical data points. Personal chemical exposure varied by individual; no two wristbands had identical chemical detection profiles. Yet, we discovered chemical exposure patterns, identifying priority chemical mixtures and classes for future toxicology, epidemiology, and exposure science research.
Funding Statement (additional comments about funding)
Research reported was supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) under award numbers P42 ES012016465, P20 ES000210, R21 ES020120, R33 ES024718, R24 TW009550, P30 ES000210, P30 ES006096, and R01 ES008739. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS or NIH. Holly M. Dixon was supported in part by NIEHS Fellowship T32 ES007060 and ARCS Foundation® Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multi-program national laboratory operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.