Developmental anatomy of Phaseolus vulgaris L. as influenced by temperature Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/8049g868n

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  • Bush snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cvs 'G5O' (Gallatin 50) and 'OSU58' (Oregon 58) were used for anatomical and morphological studies of their responses to three levels of temperature. The plants were grown in a controlled chamber under a 16-hour photoperiod at 60°/50°, 70°/60° and 80°/70°F (day/night temperature), respectively. The leaf primordia were initiated in spiral phyllotaxy. They were oriented perpendicular to their particular stipule primordia. Decussate phyllotaxy or a mixture between decussate and spiral phyllotaxy within the same plant was observed under stress condition. Low temperature decreased the number of leaf primordia per plant and delayed the initiation. Initiation of the axillary bud primordia was delayed by low temperature when compared with medium and high temperatures. The axillary bud of the uppermost leaf was the first triad primordium of the plant. It was observed at seven to nine days after planting at medium or high temperature, and at 17 and 14 days at low temperature in 'G5O' and 'OSU58', respectively. The initiation of the triad primordia of the terminal raceme of the main shoot and the primordium of the uppermost leaf of the lateral branches were also delayed by low temperature. The initiation in 'G50' was more affected by low temperature than'OSU58'. The development of the primordia was delayed by low temperature in both cultivars with the development in 'G50' being more affected than in 'OSU58'. This delay was observed in the primordium of the uppermost leaf and the first primordium of the terminal raceme of the main shoot. The opening of flowers followed the sequence of floral initiation and development. Regardless of temperature, the first flower to open was the triad of the uppermost leaf. The first triad of the terminal raceme also opened with the first group, or in some cases, with the second group. The second group of opened flowers was of the non-leaf and the one-leaf branches. The third group was the upper triad of the terminal raceme, the two-leaf branch and the branches of the first node. The time required for opening of flowers of the second and the third group was longer than the first one. Overlapping of the two later groups was observed in 'OSU58' at high and low temperatures. Seed germination and growth of seedlings were markedly delayed by low temperature. The number of nodes was decreased. The time requirement for the first flower to open was significantly lengthened as well as the duration of flowering. The pattern of flowering was changed. Concentrated flowering within a short period was observed at medium and high temperatures, whereas uniform flowering within a long period was seen at low temperature. Different responses were observed in the number of opened flowers per plant and the percentage of pod set as a function of temperature, The highest number of opened flowers in 'G50' was observed at medium temperature, whereas highest percentage of pod set was obtained at low temperature. 'OSU58' showed reversed responses from 'G50'. High temperature decreased the percentage of pod set in both cultivars.
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